"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Brintellix (vortioxetine) to treat adults with major depressive disorder.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly referred to as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by mo"...
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Since the introduction of immediate-release paroxetine hydrochloride in the United States, 342 spontaneous cases of deliberate or accidental overdosage during paroxetine treatment have been reported worldwide (circa 1999). These include overdoses with paroxetine alone and in combination with other substances. Of these, 48 cases were fatal and of the fatalities, 17 appeared to involve paroxetine alone. Eight fatal cases that documented the amount of paroxetine ingested were generally confounded by the ingestion of other drugs or alcohol or the presence of significant comorbid conditions. Of 145 non-fatal cases with known outcome, most recovered without sequelae. The largest known ingestion involved 2,000 mg of paroxetine (33 times the maximum recommended daily dose) in a patient who recovered.
Commonly reported adverse events associated with paroxetine overdosage include somnolence, coma, nausea, tremor, tachycardia, confusion, vomiting, and dizziness. Other notable signs and symptoms observed with overdoses involving paroxetine (alone or with other substances) include mydriasis, convulsions (including status epilepticus), ventricular dysrhythmias (including torsade de pointes), hypertension, aggressive reactions, syncope, hypotension, stupor, bradycardia, dystonia, rhabdomyolysis, symptoms of hepatic dysfunction (including hepatic failure, hepatic necrosis, jaundice, hepatitis, and hepatic steatosis), serotonin syndrome, manic reactions, myoclonus, acute renal failure, and urinary retention.
No specific antidotes for paroxetine are known. Treatment should consist of those general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. General supportive and symptomatic measures are also recommended. Induction of emesis is not recommended. Due to the large volume of distribuiton of this drug, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, or exchange perfusion are unlikely to be of benefit.
A specific caution involves patients taking or recently having taken paroxetine who might ingest excessive quantities of a tricyclic antidepressant. In such a case, accumulation of the parent tricyclic and an active metabolite may increase the possibility of clinically significant sequelae and extend the time needed for close medical observation (see PRECAUTIONS: Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome CYP2D6).
In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple-drug involvement. The physician should consider contacting a poison control center for additional information on the treatment of any overdose. Telephone numbers for certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR).
The use of MAOIs intended to treat depression with, or within 14 days of treatment with, PAXIL CR is contraindicated (see WARNINGS).
Do not start PAXIL CR in a patient who is being treated with a reversible MAOI such as linezolid or methylene blue because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)-like reactions (see WARNINGS).
Concomitant use in patients taking pimozide is contraindicated (see PRECAUTIONS).
PAXIL CR is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to paroxetine or to any of the inactive ingredients in PAXIL CR.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/29/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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