Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Pediatric epileptic surgery facts
- What is epilepsy?
- What are the different types of clinical seizures?
- What causes epilepsy in children?
- Are seizures bad for children?
- How is epilepsy treated?
- Who is a candidate for epilepsy surgery?
- What tests are used to determine if a child is a candidate for epilepsy surgery?
- Who performs pediatric epilepsy surgery?
- What are the types of epilepsy surgery?
- Resective epilepsy surgery
- Corpus callosotomy
- Vagus nerve stimulator (VNS)
- What are the risks of epilepsy surgery?
- Find a local Pediatric Surgeon in your town
What causes epilepsy in children?
Many different disorders of the brain may be associated with epilepsy.
For some patients the epileptic disorder is congenital, that is, the child is born with the predisposition to have epilepsy. In other patients, the epileptic disorder is acquired because of brain damage that occurred after birth.
The congenital epilepsies could be the result of the child having a gene that is responsible for the epileptic disorder; these are the genetic types of epilepsy. Alternatively, congenital epilepsy may be the result of factors that interfere with the development of the brain during gestation, resulting in brain malformations.
In acquired epileptic disorders, the damage might occur at the time of birth, for example the case of newborns that have oxygen deprivation during labor and delivery; or intracranial bleeding, as seen in some children born prematurely. Also, the brain damage may occur any time after birth. For example, epilepsy could be a complication of infections in the brain (meningitis, encephalitis), head injuries with brain damage, brain tumors, or intracranial bleeding.
Are seizures bad for children?
Presently there is no indication that short-lasting seizures will result in any brain damage. However, prolonged seizures, especially generalized tonic-clonic seizures, in some cases could result in brain damage, but this is very unusual.
Although brain damage is not likely, children can be injured at the time of the seizures. For example, in the atonic seizures there is a sudden loss of muscle power and, if this happens when the patient is standing, it is followed by a fall that might result in injuries to the face and/or mouth. Similar types of physical injuries can happen with other seizures.
Next: How is epilepsy treated?
Find tips and treatments to control seizures.