In clinical trials, a broad variety of serious adverse reactions were observed in 1,010 subjects who received PEGASYS at doses of 180 meg for 48 weeks, alone or in combination with COPEGUS [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. The most common life-threatening or fatal events induced or aggravated by PEGASYS and COPEGUS include depression, suicide, relapse of drug abuse/overdose, and bacterial infections, each occurring at a frequency of less than 1%. Hepatic decompensation occurred in 2% (10/574) of CHC/HIV subjects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying and controlled conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug, and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
In all hepatitis C studies, one or more serious adverse reactions occurred in 10% of CHC monoinfected subjects and in 19% of CHC/HIV subjects receiving PEGASYS alone or in combination with COPEGUS. The most common serious adverse event (3% in CHC and 5% in CHC/HIV) was bacterial infection (e.g., sepsis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, pyelonephritis, pneumonia). Other SAEs occurred at a frequency of less than 1% and included: suicide, suicidal ideation, aggression, anxiety, drug abuse and drug overdose, angina, hepatic dysfunction, fatty liver, cholangitis, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune phenomena (e.g., hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis), peripheral neuropathy, aplastic anemia, peptic ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding, pancreatitis, colitis, corneal ulcer, pulmonary embolism, coma, myositis, cerebral hemorrhage, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, psychotic disorder, and hallucination.
In clinical trials, 98 to 99 percent of subjects experienced one or more adverse events. For hepatitis C subjects, the most commonly reported adverse reactions were psychiatric reactions, including depression, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, and flu-like symptoms such as fatigue, pyrexia, myalgia, headache, and rigors. Other common reactions were anorexia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, arthralgias, injection site reactions, alopecia, and pruritus. Table 6 displays pooled rates of adverse events occurring in greater than 5% of subjects in the PEGASYS monotherapy and PEGASYS/COPEGUS combination therapy clinical trials.
Overall 11% of CHC monoinfected subjects receiving 48 weeks of therapy with PEGASYS either alone or in combination with COPEGUS discontinued therapy; 16% of CHC/HIV coinfected subjects discontinued therapy. The most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy were psychiatric, flu-like syndrome (e.g., lethargy, fatigue, headache), dermatologic, and gastrointestinal disorders and laboratory abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia).
Overall 39% of subjects with CHC or CHC/HIV required modification of PEGASYS and/or COPEGUS therapy. The most common reason for dose modification of PEGASYS in CHC and CHC/HIV subjects was for laboratory abnormalities, neutropenia (20% and 27%, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (4% and 6%, respectively). The most common reason for dose modification of COPEGUS in CHC and CHC/HIV subjects was anemia (22% and 16%, respectively). PEGASYS dose was reduced in 12% of subjects receiving 1000 mg to 1200 mg COPEGUS for 48 weeks and in 7% of subjects receiving 800 mg COPEGUS for 24 weeks. COPEGUS dose was reduced in 21% of subjects receiving 1000 mg to 1200 mg COPEGUS for 48 weeks and in 12% of subjects receiving 800 mg COPEGUS for 24 weeks.
Chronic hepatitis C monoinfected subjects treated for 24 weeks with PEGASYS and 800 mg COPEGUS were observed to have lower incidence of serious adverse events (3% vs. 10%), Hgb less than 10 g/dL (3% vs. 15%), dose modification of PEGASYS (30% vs. 36%) and COPEGUS (19% vs. 38%) and of withdrawal from treatment (5% vs. 15%) compared to subjects treated for 48 weeks with PEGASYS and 1000 mg or 1200 mg COPEGUS. The overall incidence of adverse events appeared to be similar in the two treatment groups.
Table 6: Adverse Reactions Occurring in greater than or equal
to 5% of Subjects in Chronic Hepatitis C Clinical Trials (Pooled Studies 1,2,3,
and Study 4)
|CHC Monotherapy (Pooled Studies 1-3)||CHC Combination Therapy Study 4|
|Body System|| PEGASYS
Either 3 MIU* or 6/3MIU* of ROFERON-A 48 week†
180 mcg + 1000 mg or 1200 mg COPEGUS 48 week**
|Intron® A + 1000 mg or 1200 mg Rebetol® 48 week**|
|Application Site Disorders|
|Injection site reaction||22||18||23||16|
|Flu-like Symptoms and Signs|
|Metabolic and Nutritional|
|Musculoskeletal,Connective Tissue and Bone|
|Dizziness (excluding vertigo)||16||12||14||14|
|Resistance Mechanism Disorders|
|Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal|
|Dyspnea exertional||< 1||< 1||4||7|
|Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue|
|* An induction dose of 6 million international units (MIU)
three times a week for the first 12 weeks followed by 3 million international
units three times a week for 36 weeks given subcutaneously.
†Pooled studies 1,2, and 3
‡ Severe hematologic abnormalities (lymphocyte less than 0.5 x 109/L; hemoglobin less than 10 g/dL; neutrophil less than 0.75 x 109/L; platelet less than 50 x 109/L).
CHC with HIV Coinfection
The adverse event profile of coinfected subjects treated with PEGASYS/COPEGUS in Study 6 was generally similar to that shown for monoinfected subjects in Study 4 (Table 6). Events occurring more frequently in coinfected subjects were neutropenia (40%), anemia (14%), thrombocytopenia (8%), weight decrease (16%), and mood alteration (9%).
Chronic Hepatitis B
In clinical trials of 48 week treatment duration, the adverse event profile of PEGASYS in chronic hepatitis B was similar to that seen in CHC PEGASYS monotherapy use, except for exacerbations of hepatitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Six percent of PEGASYS treated subjects in the hepatitis B studies experienced one or more serious adverse events.
The most common or important serious adverse events, all of which occurred at a frequency of ≤ 1%, in the hepatitis B studies were infections (sepsis, appendicitis, tuberculosis, influenza), hepatitis B flares, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
One serious adverse event of anaphylactic shock occurred in a dose ranging study of 191 subjects in a subject taking a higher than approved dose of PEGASYS.
The most commonly observed adverse reactions in the PEGASYS and lamivudine groups, respectively, were pyrexia (54% vs. 4%), headache (27% vs. 9%), fatigue (24% vs. 10%), myalgia (26% vs. 4%), alopecia (18% vs. 2%), and anorexia (16% vs. 3%).
Overall 5% of hepatitis B subjects discontinued PEGASYS therapy and 40% of subjects required modification of PEGASYS dose. The most common reason for dose modification in subjects receiving PEGASYS therapy was for laboratory abnormalities including neutropenia (20%), thrombocytopenia (13%), and ALT elevation (11%).
The laboratory test values observed in the hepatitis B trials (except where noted below) were similar to those seen in the PEGASYS monotherapy CHC trials.
In the hepatitis C studies, decreases in neutrophil count below normal were observed in 95% of all subjects treated with PEGASYS either alone or in combination with COPEGUS. Severe potentially life-threatening neutropenia (ANC less than 0.5 x 109/L) occurred in 5% of CHC subjects and 12% of CHC/HIV subjects receiving PEGASYS either alone or in combination with COPEGUS. Modification of PEGASYS dose for neutropenia occurred in 17% of subjects receiving PEGASYS monotherapy and 22% of subjects receiving PEGASYS/COPEGUS combination therapy. In the CHC/HIV subjects 27% required modification of interferon dosage for neutropenia. Two percent of subjects with CHC and 10% of subjects with CHC/HIV required permanent reductions of PEGASYS dosage and less than 1% required permanent discontinuation. Median neutrophil counts return to pre-treatment levels 4 weeks after cessation of therapy [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Decreases in lymphocyte count are induced by interferon alpha therapy. PEGASYS plus COPEGUS combination therapy induced decreases in median total lymphocyte counts (56% in CHC and 40% in CHC/HIV, with median decrease of 1170 cells/mm3 in CHC and 800 cells/mm3 in CHC/HIV). In the hepatitis C studies, lymphopenia was observed during both monotherapy (81%) and combination therapy with PEGASYS and COPEGUS (91%). Severe lymphopenia (less than 0.5 x 109/L) occurred in approximately 5% of all monotherapy subjects and 14% of all combination PEGASYS and COPEGUS therapy recipients. Dose adjustments were not required by protocol. The clinical significance of the lymphopenia is not known.
In CHC with HIV coinfection, CD4 counts decreased by 29% from baseline (median decrease of 137 cells/mm3) and CDS counts decreased by 44% from baseline (median decrease of 389 cells/mm3) in the PEGASYS plus COPEGUS combination therapy arm. Median lymphocyte CD4 and CDS counts return to pre-treatment levels after 4 to 12 weeks of the cessation of therapy. CD4% did not decrease during treatment.
In the hepatitis C studies, platelet counts decreased in 52% of CHC subjects and 51% of CHC/HIV subjects treated with PEGASYS alone (respectively median decrease of 41% and 35% from baseline), and in 33% of CHC subjects and 47% of CHC/HIV subjects receiving combination therapy with COPEGUS (median decrease of 30% from baseline). Moderate to severe thrombocytopenia (less than 50,000/mm3) was observed in 4% of CHC and 8% of CHC/HIV subjects. Median platelet counts return to pre-treatment levels 4 weeks after the cessation of therapy.
In the hepatitis C studies, the hemoglobin concentration decreased below 12 g/dL in 17% (median Hgb reduction of 2.2 g/dL) of monotherapy and 52% (median Hgb reduction of 3.7 g/dL) of combination therapy subjects. Severe anemia (Hgb less than 10 g/dL) was encountered in 13% of all subjects receiving combination therapy and in 2% of CHC subjects and 8% of CHC/HIV subjects receiving PEGASYS monotherapy. Dose modification for anemia in COPEGUS recipients treated for 48 weeks occurred in 22% of CHC subjects and 16% of CHC/HIV subjects [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Triglyceride levels are elevated in subjects receiving alfa interferon therapy and were elevated in the majority of subjects participating in clinical studies receiving either PEGASYS alone or in combination with COPEGUS. Random levels greater than or equal to 400 mg/dL were observed in about 20% of CHC subjects. Severe elevations of triglycerides (greater than 1000 mg/dL) occurred in 2% of CHC monoinfected subjects.
In HCV/HIV coinfected subjects, fasting levels greater than or equal to 400 mg/dL were observed in up to 36% of subjects receiving either PEGASYS alone or in combination with COPEGUS. Severe elevations of triglycerides (greater than 1000 mg/dL) occurred in 7% of coinfected subjects.
Chronic Hepatitis C
One percent of subjects in the hepatitis C trials experienced marked elevations (5- to 10-fold above the upper limit of normal) in ALT levels during treatment and follow-up. These transaminase elevations were on occasion associated with hyperbilirubinemia and were managed by dose reduction or discontinuation of study treatment. Liver function test abnormalities were generally transient. One case was attributed to autoimmune hepatitis, which persisted beyond study medication discontinuation [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Chronic Hepatitis B
Transient ALT elevations are common during hepatitis B therapy with PEGASYS. Twenty-five percent and 27% of subjects experienced elevations of 5 to 10 x ULN and 12% and 18% had elevations of greater than 10 x ULN during treatment of HBeAg negative and HBeAg positive disease, respectively. Flares have been accompanied by elevations of total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase and less commonly with prolongation of PT and reduced albumin levels. Eleven percent of subjects had dose modifications due to ALT flares and less than 1% of subjects were withdrawn from treatment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
ALT flares of 5 to 10 x ULN occurred in 13% and 16% of subjects, while ALT flares of greater than 10 x ULN occurred in 7% and 12% of subjects in HBeAg negative and HBeAg positive disease, respectively, after discontinuation of PEGASYS therapy.
PEGASYS alone or in combination with COPEGUS was associated with the development of abnormalities in thyroid laboratory values, some with associated clinical manifestations. In the hepatitis C studies, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism requiring treatment, dose modification or discontinuation occurred in 4% and 1% of PEGASYS treated subjects and 4% and 2% of PEGASYS and COPEGUS treated subjects, respectively. Approximately half of the subjects, who developed thyroid abnormalities during PEGASYS treatment, still had abnormalities during the follow-up period [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Chronic Hepatitis C
Nine percent (71/834) of subjects treated with PEGASYS with or without COPEGUS developed binding antibodies to interferon alfa-2a, as assessed by an ELISA assay. Three percent of subjects (25/835) receiving PEGASYS with or without COPEGUS, developed low-titer neutralizing antibodies (using an assay with a sensitivity of 100 INU/mL).
Chronic Hepatitis B
Twenty-nine percent (42/143) of hepatitis B subjects treated with PEGASYS for 24 weeks developed binding antibodies to interferon alfa-2a, as assessed by an ELISA assay. Thirteen percent of subjects (19/143) receiving PEGASYS developed low-titer neutralizing antibodies (using an assay with a sensitivity of 100 INU/mL).
The clinical and pathological significance of the appearance of serum neutralizing antibodies is unknown. No apparent correlation of antibody development to clinical response or adverse events was observed. The percentage of subjects whose test results were considered positive for antibodies is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assays.
Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody positivity in these assays may be influenced by several factors including sample timing and handling, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to PEGASYS with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.
The following adverse reactions have been identified and reported during post-approval use of PEGASYS therapy. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Blood and Lymphatic System disorders
pure red cell aplasia
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders
hearing impairment, hearing loss
Immune system disorders
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
serious skin reactions
Read the Pegasys (peginterferon alfa-2a) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »
Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome P450
There was no effect on the pharmacokinetics of representative drugs metabolized by CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19, CYP 2D6 or CYP 3A4.
Treatment with PEGASYS once weekly for 4 weeks in healthy subjects was associated with an inhibition of P450 1A2 and a 25% increase in theophylline AUG.
Treatment with PEGASYS once weekly for 4 weeks in healthy subjects was associated with an inhibition of P450 1A2 and a 25% increase in theophylline AUG. Theophylline serum levels should be monitored and appropriate dose adjustments considered for patients given both theophylline and PEGASYS.
In a PK study of HCV subjects concomitantly receiving methadone, treatment with PEGASYS once weekly for 4 weeks was associated with methadone levels that were 10% to 15% higher than at baseline. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown; however, patients should be monitored for the signs and symptoms of methadone toxicity.
The pharmacokinetics of concomitant administration of methadone and PEGASYS were evaluated in 24 PEGASYS naive chronic hepatitis C (CHC) subjects (15 male, 9 female) who received 180 meg PEGASYS subcutaneously weekly. All subjects were on stable methadone maintenance therapy (median dose 95 mg, range 30 mg to 150 mg) prior to receiving PEGASYS. Mean methadone PK parameters were 10% to 15% higher after 4 weeks of PEGASYS treatment as compared to baseline. Methadone did not significantly alter the PK of PEGASYS as compared to a PK study of 6 chronic hepatitis C subjects not receiving methadone.
In vitro data indicate ribavirin reduces phosphorylation of lamivudine, stavudine, and zidovudine. However, no pharmacokinetic (e.g., plasma concentrations or intracellular triphosphorylated active metabolite concentrations) or pharmacodynamic (e.g., loss of HIV/HCV virologic suppression) interaction was observed when ribavirin and lamivudine (n=18), stavudine (n=10), or zidovudine (n=6) were co-administered as part of a multi-drug regimen to HCV/HIV coinfected subjects.
In Study 6 among the CHC/HIV coinfected cirrhotic subjects receiving NRTIs cases of hepatic decompensation (some fatal) were observed [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients receiving PEGASYS/COPEGUS and NRTIs should be closely monitored for treatment associated toxicities. Physicians should refer to prescribing information for the respective NRTIs for guidance regarding toxicity management. In addition, dose reduction or discontinuation of PEGASYS, COPEGUS or both should also be considered if worsening toxicities are observed [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Co-administration of COPEGUS and didanosine is contraindicated. In vitro, Didanosine and its active metabolite (dideoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate) concentrations are increased when didanosine is co-administered with ribavirin. Reports of fatal hepatic failure, as well as peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis, and symptomatic hyperlactatemia/lactic acidosis have been reported in clinical trials [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
In Study 6, subjects who were administered zidovudine in combination with PEGASYS/COPEGUS developed severe neutropenia (ANC less than 500) and severe anemia (hemoglobin less than 8 g/dL) more frequently than similar subjects not receiving zidovudine (neutropenia 15% vs. 9%) (anemia 5% vs. 1%). Discontinuation of zidovudine should be considered as medically appropriate. Dose reduction or discontinuation of PEGASYS, COPEGUS or both should also be considered if worsening clinical toxicities are observed, including hepatic decompensation (e.g., Child-Pugh greater than 6).
The use of ribavirin to treat chronic hepatitis C in patients receiving azathioprine has been reported to induce severe pancytopenia and may increase the risk of azathioprine-related myelotoxicity. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMDH) is required for one of the metabolic pathways of azathioprine. Ribavirin is known to inhibit IMDH, thereby leading to accumulation of an azathioprine metabolite, 6-methylthioinosine monophosphate (6-MTITP), which is associated with myelotoxicity (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia). Patients receiving azathioprine with ribavirin should have complete blood counts, including platelet counts, monitored weekly for the first month, twice monthly for the second and third months of treatment, then monthly or more frequently if dosage or other therapy changes are necessary [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Please refer to the Full Prescribing Information for ribavirin for full details on ribavirin's drug interaction potential.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/22/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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