"A new microneedle patch being developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) could make it easier to vaccinate people against measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases.
(Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus and Haemophilus b Conjugate (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) Vaccine
Pentacel vaccine consists of a Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Polioviru (DTaP-IPV) component and an ActHIB® vaccine component combined through reconstitution for intramuscular injection. ActHIB vaccine (Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine [Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate]), consists of H influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate [PRP]) covalently bound to tetanus toxoid (PRP-T). The DTaP-IPV component is supplied as a sterile liquid used to reconstitute the lyophilized ActHIB vaccine component to form Pentacel vaccine. Pentacel vaccine is a uniform, cloudy, white to off-white (yellow tinge) suspension.
Each 0.5 mL dose contains 15 Lf diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens [20 mcg detoxified pertussis toxin (PT), 20 mcg filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), 3 mcg pertactin (PRN), 5 mcg fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM)], inactivated polioviruses [40 D-antigen units (DU) Type 1 (Mahoney), 8 DU Type 2 (MEF-1), 32 DU Type 3 (Saukett)] and 10 mcg PRP of H influenzae type b covalently bound to 24 mcg of tetanus toxoid (PRP-T).
Other ingredients per 0.5 mL dose include 1.5 mg aluminum phosphate (0.33 mg aluminum) as the adjuvant, polysorbate 80 (approximately 10 ppm by calculation), 42.5 mg sucrose, ≤ 5 mcg residual formaldehyde, < 50 ng residual glutaraldehyde, ≤ 50 ng residual bovine serum albumin, 3.3 mg (0.6% v/v) 2-phenoxyethanol (not as a preservative), < 4 pg of neomycin and < 4 pg polymyxin B sulfate.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is grown in modified Mueller's growth medium.6 After purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation, the diphtheria toxin is detoxified with formaldehyde and diafiltered.
Clostridium tetani is grown in modified Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium without beef heart infusion.7 Tetanus toxin is detoxified with formaldehyde and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and diafiltration. Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids are individually adsorbed onto aluminum phosphate.
The acellular pertussis vaccine antigens are produced from Bordetella pertussis cultures grown in Stainer-Scholte medium8 modified by the addition of casamino acids and dimethyl-betacyclodextrin. PT, FHA and PRN are isolated separately from the supernatant culture medium. FIM are extracted and copurified from the bacterial cells. The pertussis antigens are purified by sequential filtration, salt-precipitation, ultrafiltration and chromatography. PT is detoxified with glutaraldehyde. FHA is treated with formaldehyde and the residual aldehydes are removed by ultrafiltration. The individual antigens are adsorbed separately onto aluminum phosphate.
Poliovirus Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 are each grown in separate cultures of MRC-5 cells, a line of normal human diploid cells, by the microcarrier method.9,10 The cells are grown in CMRL (Connaught Medical Research Laboratories) 1969 medium, supplemented with calf serum. For viral growth, the culture medium is replaced by Medium 199, without calf serum. After clarification and filtration, the viral suspensions are concentrated by ultrafiltration, and purified by liquid chromatography steps. The monovalent viral suspensions are inactivated with formaldehyde. Monovalent concentrates of each inactivated poliovirus are combined to produce a trivalent poliovirus concentrate.
The adsorbed diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis antigens are combined with aluminum phosphate (as adjuvant), 2-phenoxyethanol (not as a preservative) and water for injection, into an intermediate concentrate. The trivalent poliovirus concentrate is added and the DTaP-IPV component is diluted to its final concentration. The DTaP-IPV component does not contain a preservative.
Both diphtheria and tetanus toxoids induce at least 2 neutralizing units per mL in the guinea pig potency test. The potency of the acellular pertussis antigens is evaluated by the antibody response of immunized mice to detoxified PT, FHA, PRN and FIM as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunogenicity of the inactivated polioviruses is evaluated by the antibody response in monkeys measured by virus neutralization.
PRP, a high molecular weight polymer, is prepared from the Haemophilus influenzae type b strain 1482 grown in a semi-synthetic medium.11 The tetanus toxoid for conjugation to PRP is prepared by ammonium sulfate purification, and formalin inactivation of the toxin from cultures of Clostridium tetani (Harvard strain) grown in a modified Mueller and Miller medium.12 The toxoid is filter sterilized prior to the conjugation process. The ActHIB vaccine component does not contain a preservative. Potency of the ActHIB vaccine component is specified on each lot by limits on the content of PRP polysaccharide and protein per dose and the proportion of polysaccharide and protein that is characterized as high molecular weight conjugate.
The vial stoppers for the DTaP-IPV and ActHIB vaccine components of Pentacel vaccine are not made with natural rubber latex.
6 Stainer DW. Production of diphtheria toxin. In: Manclark CR, editor. Proceedings of an informal consultation on the World Health Organization requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and combined vaccines. United States Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD. DHHS 91-1174. 1991. p. 7-11.
7 Mueller JH, Miller PA. Variable factors influencing the production of tetanus toxin. J Bacteriol 1954;67(3):271-7.
8 Stainer DW, et al. A simple chemically defined medium for the production of phase 1 Bordetella pertussis. J Gen Microbiol 1971;63:211-20.
9 van Wezel AL, et al. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine: current production methods and new developments. Rev Infect Dis 1984;6 (Suppl 2):S335-40.
10 Montagnon BJ et al. Industrial scale production of inactivated poliovirus vaccine prepared by culture of vero cells on microcarrier. Rev Infect Dis 1984;6 (Suppl 2):S341-4.
11 Chu CY, et al. Further studies on the immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal type 6A polysaccharide-protein conjugates. Infect Immun 1983;40:245-56.
12 Mueller JH, et al. Production of diphtheria toxin of high potency (100 Lf) on a reproducible medium. J Immunol 1941;40:21-32.
What are the possible side effects of this vaccine (Pentacel)?
Your child should not receive a booster vaccine if he or she had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.
Keep track of any and all side effects your child has after receiving this vaccine. When the child receives a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shots caused any side effects.
Becoming infected with diphtheria, haemophilus influenzae, pertussis, tetanus, or polio is much more dangerous to your child's health than receiving the vaccine to protect against these diseases. Like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects, but...
What are the precautions when taking tetanus toxoid conjugate (Pentacel)?
Before your child receives this vaccination, tell the doctor or pharmacist if your child is allergic to it; or to any other vaccine; or if your child has any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as latex), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before receiving this vaccination, tell the doctor or pharmacist your child's medical history, especially of: current fever/illness, bleeding/blood clotting problems (such as hemophilia, low platelets), immune system problems (such as HIV infection), cancer, brain/nervous system disorders (such as seizures), history of Guillain-Barre syndrome.
This vaccine is not usually used in adults. Therefore, it is unlikely to be used during pregnancy or by...
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/18/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Pentacel Information
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