"Nov. 20, 2012 -- Although mammograms remain the gold standard for breast cancer screening, they are not the perfect test.
They don't find up to 30% of cancers, and they often find something that may be suspicious for cancer but really"...
Mechanism of Action
Pertuzumab targets the extracellular dimerization domain (Subdomain II) of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 protein (HER2) and, thereby, blocks ligand-dependent heterodimerization of HER2 with other HER family members, including EGFR, HER3 and HER4. As a result, pertuzumab inhibits ligand-initiated intracellular signaling through two major signal pathways, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Inhibition of these signaling pathways can result in cell growth arrest and apoptosis, respectively. In addition, pertuzumab mediates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC).
While pertuzumab alone inhibited the proliferation of human tumor cells, the combination of pertuzumab and trastuzumab significantly augmented anti-tumor activity in HER2-overexpressing xenograft models.
Pertuzumab demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics at a dose range of 2 - 25 mg/kg. Based on a population PK analysis that included 481 patients, the median clearance (CL) of pertuzumab was 0.24 L/day and the median half-life was 18 days. With an initial dose of 840 mg followed by a maintenance dose of 420 mg every three weeks thereafter, the steady-state concentration of pertuzumab was reached after the first maintenance dose.
The population PK analysis suggested no PK differences based on age, gender, and ethnicity (Japanese vs. non-Japanese). Baseline serum albumin level and lean body weight as covariates only exerted a minor influence on PK parameters. Therefore, no dose adjustments based on body weight or baseline albumin level are needed.
No drug-drug interactions were observed between pertuzumab and trastuzumab, or between pertuzumab and docetaxel in a sub-study of 37 patients in the randomized trial.
No dedicated renal impairment trial for PERJETA has been conducted. Based on the results of the population pharmacokinetic analysis, pertuzumab exposure in patients with mild (CLcr 60 to 90 mL/min, n=200) and moderate renal impairment (CLcr 30 to 60 mL/min, n=71) were similar to those in patients with normal renal function (CLcr greater than 90 mL/min, n=200).
No relationship between CLcr and pertuzumab exposure was observed over the range of observed CLcr (27 to 244 mL/min).
The effect of pertuzumab with an initial dose of 840 mg followed by a maintenance dose of 420 mg every three weeks on QTc interval was evaluated in a subgroup of 20 patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in the randomized trial. No large changes in the mean QT interval (i.e., greater than 20 ms) from placebo based on Fridericia correction method were detected in the trial. A small increase in the mean QTc interval (i.e., less than 10 ms) cannot be excluded because of the limitations of the trial design.
Metastatic Breast Cancer
The randomized trial was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 808 patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Breast tumor specimens were required to show HER2 overexpression defined as 3+ IHC or FISH amplification ratio ≥ 2.0 determined at a central laboratory. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive placebo plus trastuzumab and docetaxel or PERJETA plus trastuzumab and docetaxel. Randomization was stratified by prior treatment (prior or no prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant anti-HER2 therapy or chemotherapy) and geographic region (Europe, North America, South America, and Asia). Patients with prior adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy were required to have a disease-free interval of greater than 12 months before trial enrollment.
PERJETA was given intravenously at an initial dose of 840 mg, followed by 420 mg every 3 weeks thereafter. Trastuzumab was given intravenously at an initial dose of 8 mg/kg, followed by 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks thereafter. Patients were treated with PERJETA and trastuzumab until progression of disease, withdrawal of consent, or unacceptable toxicity. Docetaxel was given as an initial dose of 75 mg/m² by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks for at least 6 cycles. The docetaxel dose could be escalated to 100 mg/m² at the investigator's discretion if the initial dose was well tolerated. At the time of the primary analysis, the mean number of cycles of study treatment administered was 16.2 in the placebo-treated group and 19.9 in the PERJETA-treated group.
The primary endpoint of the randomized trial was progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by an independent review facility (IRF). PFS was defined as the time from the date of randomization to the date of disease progression or death (from any cause) if the death occurred within 18 weeks of the last tumor assessment. Additional endpoints included overall survival (OS), PFS (investigator-assessed), objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response.
Patient demographic and baseline characteristics were balanced between the treatment arms. The median age was 54 (range 22 to 89 years), 59% were White, 32% were Asian, and 4% were Black. All were women with the exception of 2 patients. Seventeen percent of patients were enrolled in North America, 14% in South America, 38% in Europe, and 31% in Asia. Tumor prognostic characteristics, including hormone receptor status (positive 48%, negative 50%), presence of visceral disease (78%) and non-visceral disease only (22%) were similar in the study arms. Approximately half of the patients received prior adjuvant or neoadjuvant anti-HER2 therapy or chemotherapy (placebo 47%, PERJETA 46%). Among patients with hormone receptor positive tumors, 45% received prior adjuvant hormonal therapy and 11% received hormonal therapy for metastatic disease. Eleven percent of patients received prior adjuvant or neoadjuvant trastuzumab.
The randomized trial demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in IRF-assessed PFS in the PERJETA-treated group compared with the placebo-treated group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.75), p < 0.0001] and an increase in median PFS of 6.1 months (median PFS of 18.5 months in the PERJETA-treated group vs. 12.4 months in the placebo-treated group) (see Figure 1). The results for investigator-assessed PFS were comparable to those observed for IRF-assessed PFS.
Consistent results were observed across several patient subgroups including age ( < 65 or ≥ 65 years), race, geographic region, prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant anti-HER2 therapy or chemotherapy (yes or no), and prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant trastuzumab (yes or no). In the subgroup of patients with hormone receptor-negative disease (n=408), the hazard ratio was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.72). In the subgroup of patients with hormone receptor-positive disease (n=388), the hazard ratio was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.95). In the subgroup of patients with disease limited to non-visceral metastasis (n=178), the hazard ratio was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.52).
At the time of the PFS analysis, 165 patients had died. More deaths occurred in the placebo- treated group (23.6%) compared with the PERJETA-treated group (17.2%). At the interim OS analysis, the results were not mature and did not meet the pre-specified stopping boundary for statistical significance. See Table 2 and Figure 2.
Table 2 : Summary of Efficacy from the Randomized Trial
|Parameter||PERJETA + trastuzumab + docetaxel
|Placebo + trastuzumab + docetaxel
|HR (95% CI)||p-value|
|Progression-Free Survival (independent review)
No. of patients with an event Median months
|191 (47.5%) 18.5||242 (59.6%) 12.4||0.62 (0.51, 0.75)||< 0.0001|
|Overall Survival (interim analysis)
No. of patients with an event
|69 (17.2%)||96 (23.6%)||0.64 (0.47, 0.88)||0.0053*|
|Objective Response Rate (ORR)|
|No. of patients analyzed||343||336|
|Objective response (CR + PR)||275 (80.2%)||233 (69.3%)|
|Complete response (CR)||19 (5.5%)||14 (4.2%)|
|Partial Response (PR)||256 (74.6%)||219 (65.2%)|
|Median Duration of Response (months)||20.2||12.5|
|* The HR and p-value for the interim analysis of Overall Survival did not meet the pre-defined stopping boundary (HR ≤ 0.603, p ≤ 0.0012).|
Figure 1 : Kaplan-Meier Curve of IRF-Assessed Progression-Free Survival for the Randomized Trial
Figure 2 : Kaplan-Meier Curve
of Overall Survival for the Randomized Trial
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/26/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Perjeta Information
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