"Nov. 21, 2012 -- Women over age 40 are often urged to get yearly mammograms with the promise that early detection is their best hope for beating breast cancer.
But a new study published in The New England Journal of Medicine su"...
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Decreases in LVEF have been reported with drugs that block HER2 activity, including PERJETA. In Study 1, for patients with MBC, PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel was not associated with increases in the incidence of symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or decreases in LVEF compared with placebo in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel [see Clinical Studies]. Left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 4.4% of patients in the PERJETA-treated group and 8.3% of patients in the placebo-treated group. Symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (congestive heart failure) occurred in 1.0% of patients in the PERJETA-treated group and 1.8% of patients in the placebo-treated group [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Patients who have received prior anthracyclines or prior radiotherapy to the chest area may be at higher risk of decreased LVEF.
In patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment in Study 2, the incidence of LVSD was higher in the PERJETA-treated groups compared to the trastuzumab- and docetaxel-treated group. An increased incidence of LVEF declines was observed in patients treated with PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel. In the overall treatment period, LVEF decline > 10% and a drop to less than 50% occurred in 1.9% of patients treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel as compared to 8.4% of patients treated with neoadjuvant PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel. Symptomatic LVSD occurred in 0.9% of patients treated with neoadjuvant PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab and no patients in the other 3 arms. LVEF recovered to > 50% in all patients.
In patients receiving neoadjuvant PERJETA in Study 3, in the overall treatment period, LVEF decline > 10% and a drop to less than 50% occurred in 6.9% of patients treated with PERJETA plus trastuzumab and FEC followed by PERJETA plus trastuzumab and docetaxel, 16.0% of patients treated with PERJETA plus trastuzumab and docetaxel following FEC, and 10.5% of patients treated with PERJETA in combination with TCH. Symptomatic LVSD occurred in 4.0% of patients treated with PERJETA plus trastuzumab and docetaxel following FEC, 1.3% of patients treated with PERJETA in combination with TCH, and none of the patients treated with PERJETA plus trastuzumab and FEC followed by PERJETA plus trastuzumab and docetaxel. LVEF recovered to > 50% in all but one patient. PERJETA has not been studied in patients with a pretreatment LVEF value of < 50%, a prior history of CHF, decreases in LVEF to < 50% during prior trastuzumab therapy, or conditions that could impair left ventricular function such as uncontrolled hypertension, recent myocardial infarction, serious cardiac arrhythmia requiring treatment or a cumulative prior anthracycline exposure to > 360 mg/m² of doxorubicin or its equivalent.
Assess LVEF prior to initiation of PERJETA and at regular intervals (e.g., every three months in the metastatic setting and every six weeks in the neoadjuvant setting) during treatment to ensure that LVEF is within the institution's normal limits. If LVEF is < 45%, or is 45% to 49% with a 10% or greater absolute decrease below the pretreatment value, withhold PERJETA and trastuzumab and repeat LVEF assessment within approximately 3 weeks. Discontinue PERJETA and trastuzumab if the LVEF has not improved or has declined further, unless the benefits for the individual patient outweigh the risks [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animal studies, PERJETA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. PERJETA is a HER2/neu receptor antagonist. Cases of oligohydramnios and oligohydramnios sequence manifesting as pulmonary hypoplasia, skeletal abnormalities, and neonatal death have been reported with use of another HER2/neu receptor antagonist (trastuzumab) during pregnancy. In an animal reproduction study, administration of pertuzumab to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys during the period of organogenesis resulted in oligohydramnios, delayed fetal kidney development, and embryo-fetal death at exposures 2.5 to 20 times the exposure in humans at the recommended dose, based on Cmax.
Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to the initiation of PERJETA. Advise pregnant women and females of reproductive potential that exposure to PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab during pregnancy or within 7 months prior to conception can result in fetal harm, including embryo-fetal death or birth defects. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 7 months following the last dose of PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab [see Use in Specific Populations].
PERJETA has been associated with infusion reactions [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. An infusion reaction was defined in Study 1 as any event described as hypersensitivity, anaphylactic reaction, acute infusion reaction, or cytokine release syndrome occurring during an infusion or on the same day as the infusion. The initial dose of PERJETA was given the day before trastuzumab and docetaxel to allow for the examination of PERJETA-associated reactions. On the first day, when only PERJETA was administered, the overall frequency of infusion reactions was 13.0% in the PERJETA-treated group and 9.8% in the placebo-treated group. Less than 1% were Grade 3 or 4. The most common infusion reactions ( ≥ 1.0%) were pyrexia, chills, fatigue, headache, asthenia, hypersensitivity, and vomiting.
During the second cycle when all drugs were administered on the same day, the most common infusion reactions in the PERJETA-treated group ( ≥ 1.0%) were fatigue, dysgeusia, hypersensitivity, myalgia, and vomiting.
In Study 2 and Study 3, PERJETA was administered on the same day as the other study treatment drugs. Infusion reactions were consistent with those observed in Study 1, with a majority of reactions being National Cancer Institute - Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI - CTCAE v3.0) Grade 1 - 2.
Observe patients closely for 60 minutes after the first infusion and for 30 minutes after subsequent infusions of PERJETA. If a significant infusion-related reaction occurs, slow or interrupt the infusion, and administer appropriate medical therapies. Monitor patients carefully until complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Consider permanent discontinuation in patients with severe infusion reactions [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
In Study 1, the overall frequency of hypersensitivity/anaphylaxis reactions was 10.8% in the PERJETA-treated group and 9.1% in the placebo-treated group. The incidence of Grade 3 – 4 hypersensitivity/anaphylaxis reactions was 2.0% in the PERJETA-treated group and 2.5% in the placebo-treated group according to NCI - CTCAE v3.0. Overall, 4 patients in PERJETA-treated group and 2 patients in the placebo-treated group experienced anaphylaxis.
In Study 2 and Study 3, hypersensitivity/anaphylaxis events were consistent with those observed in Study 1. In Study 2, two patients in the PERJETA- and docetaxel-treated group experienced anaphylaxis. In Study 3, the overall frequency of hypersensitivity/anaphylaxis was highest in the PERJETA plus TCH treated group (13.2%), of which 2.6% were NCI-CTCAE (version 3) Grade 3 - 4.
Patients should be observed closely for hypersensitivity reactions. Severe hypersensitivity, including anaphylaxis, has been observed in clinical trials with treatment of PERJETA [see Clinical Trials Experience]. Medications to treat such reactions, as well as emergency equipment, should be available for immediate use. PERJETA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to pertuzumab or to any of its excipients [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Detection of HER2 protein overexpression is necessary for selection of patients appropriate for PERJETA therapy because these are the only patients studied and for whom benefit has been shown [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE and Clinical Studies]. Patients with breast cancer were required to have evidence of HER2 overexpression defined as 3+ IHC or FISH amplification ratio ≥ 2.0 in the clinical studies. Only limited data were available for patients whose breast cancer was positive by FISH, but did not demonstrate protein overexpression by IHC.
Assessment of HER2 status should be performed by laboratories using FDA-approved tests with demonstrated proficiency in the specific technology being utilized. Improper assay performance, including use of sub-optimally fixed tissue, failure to utilize specified reagents, deviation from specific assay instructions, and failure to include appropriate controls for assay validation, can lead to unreliable results.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of pertuzumab.
Studies have not been performed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of pertuzumab.
No specific fertility studies in animals have been performed to evaluate the effect of pertuzumab. No adverse effects on male and female reproductive organs were observed in repeat-dose toxicity studies of up to six months duration in cynomolgus monkeys.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Exposure Registry And Pharmacovigilance Program
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to PERJETA during pregnancy. Encourage women who receive PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab during pregnancy or within 7 months prior to conception, to enroll in the MotHER Pregnancy Registry by contacting 1-800-690-6720 or visiting http://www.motherpregnancyregistry.com/.
In addition, there is a pregnancy pharmacovigilance program for PERJETA. If PERJETA is administered during pregnancy, or if a patient becomes pregnant while receiving PERJETA or within 7 months following the last dose of PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab, health care providers and patients should immediately report PERJETA exposure to Genentech at 1888- 835-2555.
Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animal studies, PERJETA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no available data on the use of PERJETA in pregnant women. However, in post-marketing reports, use of another HER2/neu receptor antagonist (trastuzumab) during pregnancy resulted in cases of oligohydramnios and oligohydramnios sequence manifesting as pulmonary hypoplasia, skeletal abnormalities, and neonatal death. In an animal reproduction study, administration of pertuzumab to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys during the period of organogenesis resulted in oligohydramnios, delayed fetal kidney development, and embryo-fetal deaths at clinically relevant exposures that were 2.5 to 20-fold greater than exposures in humans receiving the recommended dose, based on Cmax [see Data]. Apprise the patient of the potential risks to a fetus. There are clinical considerations if PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab is used during pregnancy or within 7 months prior to conception [see Clinical Considerations].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Monitor women who received PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab during pregnancy or within 7 months prior to conception for oligohydramnios. If oligohydramnios occurs, perform fetal testing that is appropriate for gestational age and consistent with community standards of care.
Pregnant cynomolgus monkeys were treated on Gestational Day (GD)19 with loading doses of 30 to 150 mg/kg pertuzumab, followed by bi-weekly doses of 10 to 100 mg/kg. These dose levels resulted in clinically relevant exposures of 2.5 to 20-fold greater than exposures in humans receiving the recommended dose, based on Cmax. Intravenous administration of pertuzumab from GD19 through GD50 (period of organogenesis) was embryotoxic, with dose-dependent increases in embryo-fetal death between GD25 to GD70. The incidences of embryo-fetal loss were 33, 50, and 85% for dams treated with bi-weekly pertuzumab doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, respectively (2.5 to 20-fold greater than the recommended human dose, based on Cmax). At Caesarean section on GD100, oligohydramnios, decreased relative lung and kidney weights, and microscopic evidence of renal hypoplasia consistent with delayed renal development were identified in all pertuzumab dose groups. Pertuzumab exposure was reported in offspring from all treated groups, at levels of 29% to 40% of maternal serum levels at GD100.
There is no information regarding the presence of pertuzumab in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant or the effects on milk production. Published data suggest that human IgG is present in human milk but does not enter the neonatal and infant circulation in substantial amounts. Consider the developmental and health benefits of breast feeding along with the mother's clinical need for PERJETA treatment and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from PERJETA or from the underlying maternal condition. This consideration should also take into account the elimination half-life of pertuzumab and the trastuzumab wash out period of 7 months.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to the initiation of PERJETA.
Based on the mechanism of action and animal data, PERJETA can cause embryo-fetal harm when administered during pregnancy. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 7 months following the last dose of PERJETA in combination with trastuzumab [see Use In Specific Populations].
The safety and effectiveness of PERJETA have not been established in pediatric patients.
Of 402 patients who received PERJETA in Study 1, 60 patients (15%) were ≥ 65 years of age and 5 patients (1%) were ≥ 75 years of age. No overall differences in efficacy and safety of PERJETA were observed between these patients and younger patients.
Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis, no significant difference was observed in the pharmacokinetics of pertuzumab between patients < 65 years (n=306) and patients ≥ 65 years (n=175).
Dose adjustments of PERJETA are not needed in patients with mild (creatinine clearance [CLcr] 60 to 90 mL/min) or moderate (CLcr 30 to 60 mL/min) renal impairment. No dose adjustment can be recommended for patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr less than 30 mL/min) because of the limited pharmacokinetic data available [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of pertuzumab.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/4/2016
Additional Perjeta Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Find support and advances in treatment.