Plague (Black Death)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Steven Doerr, MD
Steven Doerr, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Doerr received his undergraduate degree in Spanish from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He graduated with his Medical Degree from the University Of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, Colorado in 1998 and completed his residency training in Emergency Medicine from Denver Health Medical Center in Denver, Colorado in 2002, where he also served as Chief Resident.
- Plague (Black Death) facts
- What is plague? What is the history of plague?
- What causes plague?
- What are risk factors for plague?
- What is the incubation period for plague?
- What are plague symptoms and signs? What are the different types of plague?
- Is plague contagious? How is plague transmitted?
- What is the contagious period for pneumonic plague?
- How do physicians diagnose plague?
- What is the treatment for plague?
- What is the prognosis of plague?
- Is it possible to prevent plague? Is there a plague vaccine?
- Could plague be used as a biological weapon?
Plague (Black Death) facts
- Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria known as Yersinia pestis.
- Plague has a high fatality rate and has been described for centuries.
- In the Middle Ages, plague was known as the "Black Death" and caused the death of 60% of the population of Europe.
- Transmission occurs via fleas that feed on infected animals, typically wild rodents.
- There are three forms of plague in humans: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague.
- The signs and symptoms of plague generally develop between two and seven days after a person acquires the infection. Symptoms and signs depend on one of the three forms of plague and include the following:
- Bubonic plague symptoms and signs include painful and enlarged lymph nodes, chills, headache, fever, and weakness.
- Septicemic plague (Black Death or black plague) symptoms and signs include fever, weakness, abdominal pain, chills, and shock. Tissue bleeding and death may cause the dying tissues to appear black.
- Pneumonic plague symptoms and signs include characteristic pneumonia symptoms like chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for plague and are most effective when given early in the course of disease.
- There is no commercially available vaccine against plague.
- Plague may be found in low levels in animals in the southwestern U.S.
- Diagnosis of plague depends upon identifying the causative bacteria in fluid or tissue samples.
What is plague? What is the history of plague?
Plague is a bacterial disease that is infamous for causing millions of deaths in the Middle Ages in Europe. Many historical references describe the illness, which has been referred to as the Black Death. The first reported plague pandemic began in 541 A.D. and lasted for over 200 years, killing an estimated 100 million people or more throughout the Mediterranean basin. The so-called Black Death, or pandemic of the Middle Ages, began in China and made its way to Europe, causing the death of 60% of the entire population. The third, or modern, pandemic started in China in the 19th century and spread to port cities all over the world. Most recently, the World Health Organization reported an outbreak of plague in Madagascar in November 2014. The outbreak affected over 100 patients and caused at least 40 deaths.
Rodents and many other kinds of animals can be infected with plague-causing bacteria. People contract the bacteria through bites of fleas that have fed on infected rodents. Humans can also develop the infection from handling fluids or tissues from infected animals. People with plague pneumonia can also transmit the infection to other humans via coughing infectious droplets into the air.
Next: What causes plague?
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