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PLATINOL-AQ produces cumulative nephrotoxicity which is potentiated by aminoglycoside antibiotics. The serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance, and magnesium, sodium, potassium, and calcium levels should be measured prior to initiating therapy, and prior to each subsequent course. At the recommended dosage, PLATINOL-AQ should not be given more frequently than once every 3 to 4 weeks (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Elderly patients may be more susceptible to nephrotoxicity (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use).
There are reports of severe neuropathies in patients in whom regimens are employed using higher doses of PLATINOL-AQ or greater dose frequencies than those recommended. These neuropathies may be irreversible and are seen as paresthesias in a stocking-glove distribution, areflexia, and loss of proprioception and vibratory sensation. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to peripheral neuropathy (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use).
Loss of motor function has also been reported.
Anaphylactic-like reactions to PLATINOL-AQ have been reported. These reactions have occurred within minutes of administration to patients with prior exposure to PLATINOL-AQ, and have been alleviated by administration of epinephrine, corticosteroids, and antihistamines.
PLATINOL-AQ can commonly cause ototoxicity which is cumulative and may be severe. Audiometric testing should be performed prior to initiating therapy and prior to each subsequent dose of drug (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Certain genetic variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene are associated with increased risk of ototoxicity in children administered conventional doses of cisplatin (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Children who do not have one of these TPMT gene variants remain at risk for ototoxicity. All pediatric patients receiving cisplatin should have audiometric testing at baseline, prior to each subsequent dose, of drug and for several years post therapy.
PLATINOL-AQ can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. PLATINOL-AQ is mutagenic in bacteria and produces chromosome aberrations in animal cells in tissue culture. In mice PLATINOL-AQ is teratogenic and embryotoxic. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Patients should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant.
The carcinogenic effect of PLATINOL-AQ was studied in BD IX rats. PLATINOL-AQ was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to 50 BD IX rats for 3 weeks, 3 X 1 mg/kg body weight per week. Four hundred and fifty-five days after the first application, 33 animals died, 13 of them related to malignancies: 12 leukemias and 1 renal fibrosarcoma.
The development of acute leukemia coincident with the use of PLATINOL-AQ has been reported. In these reports, PLATINOL-AQ was generally given in combination with other leukemogenic agents.
Injection site reactions may occur during the administration of PLATINOL-AQ (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Given the possibility of extravasation, it is recommended to closely monitor the infusion site for possible infiltration during drug administration. A specific treatment for extravasation reactions is unknown at this time.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Pregnancy Category D
Cisplatin has been reported to be found in human milk; patients receiving PLATINOL-AQ should not breast-feed.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene are associated with an increased risk of ototoxicity in children treated with cisplatin (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
All children should have audiometric monitoring performed prior to initiation of therapy prior to each subsequent dose, and for several years post therapy. Advanced testing methods may allow for earlier detection of hearing loss in an attempt to facilitate the rapid initiation of interventions that can limit the potential adverse impact of hearing impairment on a child's cognitive and social development.
Insufficient data are available from clinical trials of cisplatin in the treatment of metastatic testicular tumors or advanced bladder cancer to determine whether elderly patients respond differently than younger patients. In four clinical trials of combination chemotherapy for advanced ovarian carcinoma, 1484 patients received cisplatin either in combination with cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Of these, 426 (29%) were older than 65 years. In these trials, age was not found to be a prognostic factor for survival. However, in a later secondary analysis for one of these trials, elderly patients were found to have shorter survival compared with younger patients. In all four trials, elderly patients experienced more severe neutropenia than younger patients. Higher incidences of severe thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were also seen in elderly compared with younger patients, although not in all cisplatin-containing treatment arms. In the two trials where nonhematologic toxicity was evaluated according to age, elderly patients had a numerically higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience suggests that elderly patients may be more susceptible to myelosuppression, infectious complications, and nephrotoxicity than younger patients.
Cisplatin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and is contraindicated in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and renal function should be monitored.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/24/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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