July 29, 2016
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Pradaxa

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Pradaxa




CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism Of Action

Dabigatran and its acyl glucuronides are competitive, direct thrombin inhibitors. Because thrombin (serine protease) enables the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin during the coagulation cascade, its inhibition prevents the development of a thrombus. Both free and clot-bound thrombin, and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation are inhibited by the active moieties.

Pharmacodynamics

At recommended therapeutic doses, dabigatran etexilate prolongs the coagulation markers such as aPTT, ECT, and TT. INR is relatively insensitive to the exposure to dabigatran and cannot be interpreted the same way as used for warfarin monitoring.

The aPTT test provides an approximation of PRADAXA's anticoagulant effect. The average time course for effects on aPTT, following approved dosing regimens in patients with various degrees of renal impairment is shown in Figure 2. The curves represent mean levels without confidence intervals; variations should be expected when measuring aPTT. While advice cannot be provided on the level of recovery of aPTT needed in any particular clinical setting, the curves can be used to estimate the time to get to a particular level of recovery, even when the time since the last dose of PRADAXA is not precisely known. In the RE-LY trial, the median (10th to 90th percentile) trough aPTT in patients receiving the 150 mg dose was 52 (40 to 76) seconds.

Figure 2 : Average Time Course for Effects of Dabigatran on aPTT, Following Approved PRADAXA Dosing Regimens in Patients with Various Degrees of Renal Impairment*

Average Time Course for Effects of Dabigatran on aPTT - Illustration

*Simulations based on PK data from a study in subjects with renal impairment and PK/aPTT relationships derived from the RE-LY study; aPTT prolongation in RE-LY was measured centrally in citrate plasma using PTT Reagent Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany. There may be quantitative differences between various established methods for aPTT assessment.

The degree of anticoagulant activity can also be assessed by the ecarin clotting time (ECT). This test is a more specific measure of the effect of dabigatran than activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). In the RE-LY trial, the median (10th to 90th percentile) trough ECT in patients receiving the 150 mg dose was 63 (44 to 103) seconds.

In orthopedic hip surgery patients, maximum aPTT response (Emax) to dabigatran and baseline aPTT were higher shortly after surgery than at later time points (e.g. ≥ 3 days after surgery).

Cardiac Electrophysiology

No prolongation of the QTc interval was observed with dabigatran etexilate at doses up to 600 mg.

Pharmacokinetics

Dabigatran etexilate mesylate is absorbed as the dabigatran etexilate ester. The ester is then hydrolyzed, forming dabigatran, the active moiety. Dabigatran is metabolized to four different acyl glucuronides and both the glucuronides and dabigatran have similar pharmacological activity. Pharmacokinetics described here refer to the sum of dabigatran and its glucuronides. Dabigatran displays dose-proportional pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and patients in the range of doses from 10 to 400 mg.

Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of dabigatran following oral administration of dabigatran etexilate is approximately 3 to 7%. Dabigatran etexilate is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-gp. After oral administration of dabigatran etexilate in healthy volunteers, Cmax occurs at 1 hour post-administration in the fasted state. Coadministration of PRADAXA with a high-fat meal delays the time to Cmax by approximately 2 hours but has no effect on the bioavailability of dabigatran; PRADAXA may be administered with or without food.

The oral bioavailability of dabigatran etexilate increases by 75% when the pellets are taken without the capsule shell compared to the intact capsule formulation. PRADAXA capsules should therefore not be broken, chewed, or opened before administration.

Distribution

Dabigatran is approximately 35% bound to human plasma proteins. The red blood cell to plasma partitioning of dabigatran measured as total radioactivity is less than 0.3. The volume of distribution of dabigatran is 50 to 70 L. Dabigatran pharmacokinetics are dose proportional after single doses of 10 to 400 mg. Given twice daily, dabigatran's accumulation factor is approximately two.

Elimination

Dabigatran is eliminated primarily in the urine. Renal clearance of dabigatran is 80% of total clearance after intravenous administration. After oral administration of radiolabeled dabigatran, 7% of radioactivity is recovered in urine and 86% in feces. The half-life of dabigatran in healthy subjects is 12 to 17 hours.

Metabolism

After oral administration, dabigatran etexilate is converted to dabigatran. The cleavage of the dabigatran etexilate by esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis to the active principal dabigatran is the predominant metabolic reaction. Dabigatran is not a substrate, inhibitor, or inducer of CYP450 enzymes. Dabigatran is subject to conjugation forming pharmacologically active acyl glucuronides. Four positional isomers, 1-O, 2-O, 3-O, and 4-O-acylglucuronide exist, and each accounts for less than 10% of total dabigatran in plasma.

Renal Impairment

An open, parallel-group single-center study compared dabigatran pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and patients with mild to moderate renal impairment receiving a single dose of PRADAXA 150 mg. Exposure to dabigatran increases with severity of renal function impairment (Table 8). Similar findings were observed in the RELY, RE-COVER and RE-NOVATE II trials.

Table 8 : Impact of Renal Impairment on Dabigatran Pharmacokinetics

Renal Function CrCl (mL/min) Increase in AUC Increase in Cmax t½ (h)
Normal ≥ 80 1x 1x 13
Mild 50-80 1.5x 1.1x 15
Moderate 30-50 3.2x 1.7x 18
Severe+ 15-30 6.3x 2.1x 27
+Patients with severe renal impairment were not studied in RE-LY, RE-COVER and RE-NOVATE II. Dosing recommendations in subjects with severe renal impairment are based on pharmacokinetic modeling [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use In Specific Populations].

Hepatic Impairment

Administration of PRADAXA in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B) showed a large inter-subject variability, but no evidence of a consistent change in exposure or pharmacodynamics.

Drug Interactions

A summary of the effect of coadministered drugs on dabigatran exposure is shown in Figures 3.1 and 3.2.

In the orthopedic hip surgery patients, limited clinical data with P-gp inhibitors is available.

Figure 3.1:  Effect of P-gp Inhibitor or Inducer (rifampicin) Drugs on Peak and Total Exposure to Dabigatran (Cmax and AUC). Shown are the Geometric Mean Ratios (Ratio) and 90% Confidence Interval (90% CI). The Perpetrator and Dabigatran Etexilate Dose and Dosing Frequency are given as well as the Time of Perpetrator Dosing in Relation to Dabigatran Etexilate Dose (Time Difference)

A summary of the effect of coadministered drugs on dabigatran exposure - Illustration

Figure 3.2: Effect of Non-P-gp Inhibitor or Inducer, Other Drugs, on Peak and Total Exposure to Dabigatran (Cmax and AUC). Shown are the Geometric Mean Ratios (Ratio) and 90% Confidence Interval (90% CI). The Perpetrator and Dabigatran Etexilate Dose and Dosing Frequency are given as well as the Time of Perpetrator Dosing in Relation to Dabigatran Etexilate Dose (Time Difference)

A summary of the effect of coadministered drugs on dabigatran exposure - Illustration

In RE-LY, dabigatran plasma samples were also collected. The concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors, H2 antagonists, and digoxin did not appreciably change the trough concentration of dabigatran.

Impact of Dabigatran on Other Drugs

In clinical studies exploring CYP3A4, CYP2C9, P-gp and other pathways, dabigatran did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of amiodarone, atorvastatin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, clopidogrel, digoxin, pantoprazole, or ranitidine.

Clinical Studies

Reduction Of Risk Of Stroke And Systemic Embolism In Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation

The clinical evidence for the efficacy of PRADAXA was derived from RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulant Therapy), a multi-center, multinational, randomized parallel group trial comparing two blinded doses of PRADAXA (110 mg twice daily and 150 mg twice daily) with open-label warfarin (dosed to target INR of 2 to 3) in patients with non-valvular, persistent, paroxysmal, or permanent atrial fibrillation and one or more of the following additional risk factors:

The primary objective of this study was to determine if PRADAXA was non-inferior to warfarin in reducing the occurrence of the composite endpoint, stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic) and systemic embolism. The study was designed to ensure that PRADAXA preserved more than 50% of warfarin's effect as established by previous randomized, placebo-controlled trials of warfarin in atrial fibrillation. Statistical superiority was also analyzed.

A total of 18,113 patients were randomized and followed for a median of 2 years. The patients' mean age was 71.5 years and the mean CHADS2 score was 2.1. The patient population was 64% male, 70% Caucasian, 16% Asian, and 1% black. Twenty percent of patients had a history of a stroke or TIA and 50% were Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) na´ve, defined as less than 2 months total lifetime exposure to a VKA. Thirty-two percent of the population had never been exposed to a VKA. Concomitant diseases of patients in this trial included hypertension 79%, diabetes 23%, and CAD 28%. At baseline, 40% of patients were on aspirin and 6% were on clopidogrel. For patients randomized to warfarin, the mean percentage of time in therapeutic range (INR 2 to 3) was 64%.

Relative to warfarin and to PRADAXA 110 mg twice daily, PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily significantly reduced the primary composite endpoint of stroke and systemic embolism (see Table 9 and Figure 4).

Table 9 : First Occurrence of Stroke or Systemic Embolism in the RE-LY Study*

  PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily PRADAXA 110 mg twice daily Warfarin
Patients randomized 6076 6015 6022
Patients (%) with events 135 (2.2%) 183 (3%) 203 (3.4%)
Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95% CI) 0.65
(0.52, 0.81)
0.89
(0.73, 1.09)
 
  P-value for superiority 0.0001 0.27  
Hazard ratio vs. PRADAXA 110 mg (95% CI) 0.72
(0.58, 0.91)
   
  P-value for superiority 0.005    
* Randomized ITT

Figure 4 : Kaplan-Meier Curve Estimate of Time to First Stroke or Systemic Embolism

Kaplan-Meier Curve Estimate of Time to First Stroke or Systemic Embolism - Illustration

The contributions of the components of the composite endpoint, including stroke by subtype, are shown in Table 10. The treatment effect was primarily a reduction in stroke. PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily was superior in reducing ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes relative to warfarin.

Table 10 : Strokes and Systemic Embolism in the RE-LY Study

  PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily Warfarin Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95% CI)
Patients randomized 6076 6022  
Stroke 123 187 0.64 (0.51, 0.81)
  Ischemic stroke 104 134 0.76 (0.59, 0.98)
  Hemorrhagic stroke 12 45 0.26 (0.14, 0.49)
Systemic embolism 13 21 0.61 (0.30, 1.21)

In the RE-LY trial, the rate of all-cause mortality was lower on dabigatran 150 mg than on warfarin (3.6% per year versus 4.1% per year). The rate of vascular death was lower on dabigatran 150 mg compared to warfarin (2.3% per year versus 2.7% per year). Non-vascular death rates were similar in the treatment arms.

The efficacy of PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily was generally consistent across major subgroups (see Figure 5).

Figure 5 : Stroke and Systemic Embolism Hazard Ratios by Baseline Characteristics*

Stroke and Systemic Embolism Hazard Ratios by Baseline Characteristics - Illustration

* Randomized ITT

Note: The figure above presents effects in various subgroups all of which are baseline characteristics and all of which were pre-specified. The 95% confidence limits that are shown do not take into account how many comparisons were made, nor do they reflect the effect of a particular factor after adjustment for all other factors. Apparent homogeneity or heterogeneity among groups should not be over-interpreted.

In RE-LY, a higher rate of clinical myocardial infarction was reported in patients who received PRADAXA (0.7 per 100 patient-years for 150 mg dose) than in those who received warfarin (0.6).

Treatment And Reduction In The Risk Of Recurrence Of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

In the randomized, parallel group, double-blind trials, RE-COVER and RE-COVER II, patients with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism received PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily or warfarin (dosed to target INR of 2 to 3) following initial treatment with an approved parenteral anticoagulant for 5-10 days.

In RE-COVER, the median treatment duration during the oral only treatment period was 174 days. A total of 2539 patients (30.9% patients with symptomatic PE with or without DVT and 68.9% with symptomatic DVT only) were treated with a mean age of 54.7 years. The patient population was 58.4% male, 94.8% white, 2.6% Asian, and 2.6% black. The concomitant diseases of patients in this trial included hypertension (35.9%), diabetes mellitus (8.3%), coronary artery disease (6.5%), active cancer (4.8%), and gastric or duodenal ulcer (4.4%). Concomitant medications included agents acting on renin-angiotensin system (25.2%), vasodilators (28.4%), serum lipid-reducing agents (18.2%), NSAIDs (21%), beta-blockers (14.8%), calcium channel blockers (8.5%), ASA (8.6%), and platelet inhibitors excluding ASA (0.6%). Patients randomized to warfarin had a mean percentage of time in the INR target range of 2.0 to 3.0 of 60% in RE-COVER study.

In RE-COVER II, the median treatment duration during the oral only treatment period was 174 days. A total of 2568 patients (31.8% patients with symptomatic PE with or without DVT and 68.1% with symptomatic DVT only) were treated with a mean age of 54.9 years. The patient population was 60.6% male, 77.6% white, 20.9% Asian, and 1.5% black. The concomitant diseases of patients in this trial included hypertension (35.1%), diabetes mellitus (9.8%), coronary artery disease (7.1%), active cancer (3.9%), and gastric or duodenal ulcer (3.8%). Concomitant medications included agents acting on renin-angiotensin system (24.2%), vasodilators (28.6%), serum lipid-reducing agents (20.0%), NSAIDs (22.3%), beta-blockers (14.8%), calcium channel blockers (10.8%), ASA (9.8%), and platelet inhibitors excluding ASA (0.8%). Patients randomized to warfarin had a mean percentage of time in the INR target range of 2.0 to 3.0 of 57% in RE-COVER II study.

In studies RE-COVER and RE-COVER II, the protocol specified non-inferiority margin (2.75) for the hazard ratio was derived based on the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the historical warfarin effect. PRADAXA was demonstrated to be non-inferior to warfarin (dosed to target INR of 2 to 3) (Table 11) based on the primary composite endpoint (fatal PE or symptomatic non-fatal PE and/or DVT) and retains at least 66.9% (RE-COVER) and 63.9% (RE-COVER II) of the historical warfarin effect respectively.

Table 11 : Primary Efficacy Endpoint for RE-COVER and RE-COVER II – Modified ITTa Population

  PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily
N (%)
Warfarin
N (%)
Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95% CI)
RE-COVER N=1274 N=1265  
Primary Composite Endpointb 34 (2.7) 32 (2.5) 1.05 (0.65, 1.70)
  Fatal PEc 1 (0.1) 3 (0.2)  
  Symptomatic non-fatal PEc 16 (1.3) 8 (0.6)  
Symptomatic recurrent DVTc 17 (1.3) 23 (1.8)  
RE-COVER II N=1279 N=1289  
Primary Composite Endpointb 34 (2.7) 30 (2.3) 1.13 (0.69, 1.85)
  Fatal PEc 3 (0.2) 0  
  Symptomatic non-fatal PEc 9 (0.7) 15 (1.2)  
  Symptomatic recurrent DVTc 30 (2.3) 17 (1.3)  
aModified ITT analyses population consists of all randomized patients who received at least one dose of study medication.
bNumber of patients with one or more event.
cNumber of events. For patients with multiple events each event is counted independently.

In the randomized, parallel group, double-blind, pivotal trial, RE-MEDY, patients received PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily or warfarin (dosed to target INR of 2 to 3) following 3 to 12 months of treatment with anticoagulation therapy for an acute VTE. The median treatment duration during the treatment period was 534 days. A total of 2856 patients were treated with a mean age of 54.6 years. The patient population was 61% male, and 90.1% white, 7.9% Asian and 2.0% black. The concomitant diseases of patients in this trial included hypertension (38.6%), diabetes mellitus (9.0%), coronary artery disease (7.2%), active cancer (4.2%), and gastric or duodenal ulcer (3.8%). Concomitant medications included agents acting on renin-angiotensin system (27.9%), vasodilators (26.7%), serum lipid reducing agents (20.6%), NSAIDs (18.3%), beta-blockers (16.3%), calcium channel blockers (11.1%), aspirin (7.7%), and platelet inhibitors excluding ASA (0.9%). Patients randomized to warfarin had a mean percentage of time in the INR target range of 2.0 to 3.0 of 62% in the study.

In study RE-MEDY, the protocol specified non-inferiority margin (2.85) for the hazard ratio was derived based on the point estimate of the historical warfarin effect. PRADAXA was demonstrated to be non-inferior to warfarin (dosed to target INR of 2 to 3) (Table 12) based on the primary composite endpoint (fatal PE or symptomatic non-fatal PE and/or DVT) and retains at least 63.0% of the historical warfarin effect. If the non-inferiority margin was derived based on the 50% retention of the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval, PRADAXA was demonstrated to retain at least 33.4% of the historical warfarin effect based on the composite primary endpoint.

Table 12 : Primary Efficacy Endpoint for RE-MEDY – Modified ITTa Population

  PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily
N=1430 N (%)
Warfarin
N=1426 N (%)
Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95% CI)
Primary Composite Endpointb 26 (1.8) 18 (1.3) 1.44 (0.78, 2.64)
  Fatal PEc 1 (0.07) 1 (0.07)  
  Symptomatic non-fatal PEc 10 (0.7) 5 (0.4)  
  Symptomatic recurrent DVTc 17 (1.2) 13 (0.9)  
aModified ITT analyses population consists of all randomized patients who received at least one dose of study medication.
bNumber of patients with one or more event.
cNumber of events. For patients with multiple events each event is counted independently.

In a randomized, parallel group, double-blind, pivotal trial, RE-SONATE, patients received PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily or placebo following 6 to 18 months of treatment with anticoagulation therapy for an acute VTE. The median treatment duration was 182 days. A total of 1343 patients were treated with a mean age of 55.8 years. The patient population was 55.5% male, 89.0% white, 9.3% Asian, and 1.7% black. The concomitant diseases of patients in this trial included hypertension (38.8%), diabetes mellitus (8.0%), coronary artery disease (6.0%), history of cancer (6.0%), gastric or duodenal ulcer (4.5%), and heart failure (4.6%). Concomitant medications included agents acting on renin-angiotensin system (28.7%), vasodilators (19.4%), beta-blockers (18.5%), serum lipid reducing agents (17.9%), NSAIDs (12.1%), calcium channel blockers (8.9%), aspirin (8.3%), and platelet inhibitors excluding ASA (0.7%). Based on the outcome of the primary composite endpoint (fatal PE, unexplained death, or symptomatic non-fatal PE and/or DVT), PRADAXA was superior to placebo (Table 13).

Table 13 : Primary Efficacy Endpoint for RE-SONATE – Modified ITTa Population

  PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily
N=681 N (%)
Placebo
N=662 N (%)
Hazard ratio vs. placebo (95% CI)
Primary Composite Endpointb 3 (0.4) 37 (5.6) 0.08 (0.02, 0.25)
p-value < 0.0001
  Fatal PE and unexplained deathc 0 2 (0.3)  
  Symptomatic non-fatal PEc 1 (0.1) 14 (2.1)  
  Symptomatic recurrent DVTc 2 (0.3) 23 (3.5)  
aModified ITT analyses population consists of all randomized patients who received at least one dose of study medication.
bNumber of patients with one or more events.
cNumber of events. For patients with multiple events each event is counted independently.

Prophylaxis Of Deep Vein Thrombosis And Pulmonary Embolism Following Hip Replacement Surgery

In the randomized, parallel group, double-blind, non-inferiority trials, RE-NOVATE and RE-NOVATE II patients received PRADAXA 75 mg orally 1-4 hours after surgery followed by 150 mg daily (RE-NOVATE), PRADAXA 110 mg orally 1-4 hours after surgery followed by 220 mg daily (RE-NOVATE and RE-NOVATE II) or subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg once daily initiated the evening before surgery (RE-NOVATE and RE-NOVATE II) for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients who have undergone hip replacement surgery.

Overall, in RE-NOVATE and RE-NOVATE II, the median treatment duration was 33 days for PRADAXA and 33 days for enoxaparin. A total of 5428 patients were treated with a mean age of 63.2 years. The patient population was 45.3% male, 96.1% white, 3.6% Asian, and 0.4 % black. The concomitant diseases of patients in these trials included hypertension (46.1%), venous insufficiency (15.4%), coronary artery disease (8.2%), diabetes mellitus (7.9%), reduced renal function (5.3%), heart failure (3.4%), gastric or duodenal ulcer (3.0%), VTE (2.7%), and malignancy (0.1%). Concomitant medications included cardiac therapy (69.7%), NSAIDs (68%), vasoprotectives (29.7%), agents acting on renin-angiotensin system (29.1%), beta-blockers (21.5%), diuretics (20.8%), lipid modifying agents (18.2%), any antithrombin/anticoagulant (16.0%), calcium channel blockers (13.6%), low molecular weight heparin (7.8%), aspirin (7.0%), platelet inhibitors excluding ASA (6.9%), other antihypertensives (6.7%), and peripheral vasodilators (2.6%).

For efficacy evaluation all patients were to have bilateral venography of the lower extremities at 3 days after last dose of study drug unless an endpoint event had occurred earlier in the study. In the primary efficacy analysis, PRADAXA 110 mg orally 1-4 hours after surgery followed by 220 mg daily was non-inferior to enoxaparin 40 mg once daily in a composite endpoint of confirmed VTE (proximal or distal DVT on venogram, confirmed symptomatic DVT, or confirmed PE) and all cause death during the treatment period (Tables 14 and 15). In the studies 2628 (76.5%) patients in RE-NOVATE and 1572 (78.9%) patients in RE-NOVATE II had evaluable venograms at study completion.

Table 14 : Primary Efficacy Endpoint for RE-NOVATE

  PRADAXA 220 mg
N (%)
Enoxaparin
N (%)
Number of Patientsa N=880 N= 897
Primary Composite Endpoint 53 (6.0) 60 (6.7)
Risk difference (%) vs. enoxaparin (95% CI) -0.7 (-2.9, 1.6)
Number of Patients N=909 N=917
Composite endpoint of major VTEb and VTE related mortality 28 (3.1) 36 (3.9)
  Number of Patients N=905 N=914
  Proximal DVT 23 (2.5) 33 (3.6)
  Number of Patients N=874 N=894
  Total DVT 46 (5.3) 57 (6.4)
  Number of Patients N=1137 N=1142
  Symptomatic DVT 6 (0.5) 1 (0.1)
  PE 5 (0.4) 3 (0.3)
  Death 3 (0.3) 0
aFull Analysis Set (FAS): The FAS included all randomized patients who received at least one subcutaneous injection or one oral dose of study medication, underwent surgery and subjects for whom the presence or absence of an efficacy outcome at the end of the study was known, i.e., an evaluable negative venogram for both distal and proximal DVT in both legs or any of the following: positive venography in one or both legs, or confirmed symptomatic DVT, PE, or death during the treatment period.
bVTE is defined as proximal DVT and PE

Table 15 : Primary Efficacy Endpoint for RE-NOVATE II

  PRADAXA 220 mg
N (%)
Enoxaparin
N (%)
Number of Patientsa N=792 N= 786
Primary Composite Endpoint 61 (7.7) 69 (8.8)
Risk difference (%) vs. enoxaparin (95% CI) -1.1 (-3.8, 1.6)
Number of Patients N=805 N=795
Composite endpoint of major VTEb and VTE related mortality 18 (2.2) 33 (4.2)
  Number of Patients N=804 N=793
  Proximal DVT 17 (2.1) 31 (3.9)
  Number of Patients N=791 N=784
  Total DVT 60 (7.6) 67 (8.5)
  Number of Patients N=1001 N=992
  Symptomatic DVT 0 4(0.4)
  PE 1 (0.1) 2 (0.2)
  Death 0 1 (0.1)
aFull Analysis Set (FAS): The FAS included all randomized patients who received at least one subcutaneous injection or one oral dose of study medication, underwent surgery and subjects for whom the presence or absence of an efficacy outcome at the end of the study was known, i.e., an evaluable negative venogram for both distal and proximal DVT in both legs or any of the following: positive venography in one or both legs, or confirmed symptomatic DVT, PE, or death during the treatment period.
bVTE is defined as proximal DVT and PE

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/7/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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