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Pradaxa

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Pradaxa




Pradaxa Side Effects Center

Pharmacy Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

Last reviewed on RxList 7/10/2015

Pradaxa (dabigatran) is an anticoagulant that works by blocking the clotting protein thrombin. Pradaxa is used to prevent blood clots from forming because of a certain irregular heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation). Preventing these blood clots helps to reduce the risk of a stroke. Side effects of Pradaxa include bruising and minor bleeding, nausea, abdominal or stomach pain, stomach upset, indigestion, heartburn, nausea, diarrhea, skin rash, or itching.

The usual recommended dose of Pradaxa is 150 mg taken orally, twice daily Pradaxa is administered in capsule form. Pradaxa may interact with antibiotics, St. John's wort, antifungal medications, aspirin or other NSAIDs, heart or blood pressure medcaition, HIV/AIDS medicine, or medicines used to prevent organ transplant rejection. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Pradaxa in pregnant women. It is not known whether dabigatran is excreted in human milk. The safety and effectiveness of Pradaxa in pediatric patients has also not been established.

Our Pradaxa Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What is Patient Information in Detail?

Easy-to-read and understand detailed drug information and pill images for the patient or caregiver from Cerner Multum.

Pradaxa in Detail - Patient Information: Side Effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using dabigatran and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • any bleeding that will not stop;
  • weakness, feeling like you might pass out;
  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding (nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum), purple or red pinpoint spots under your skin;
  • blood in your urine or stools, black or tarry stools;
  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds;
  • pink or brown urine;
  • joint pain or swelling; or
  • heavy menstrual bleeding.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • stomach pain or upset, indigestion, heartburn;
  • nausea, diarrhea; or
  • mild skin rash or itching.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the entire detailed patient monograph for Pradaxa (Dabigatran Etexilate Mesylate)

What is Patient Information Overview?

A concise overview of the drug for the patient or caregiver from First DataBank.

Pradaxa Overview - Patient Information: Side Effects

SIDE EFFECTS: See also Warning section.

Easy bruising or minor bleeding (such as nosebleed, bleeding from cuts) may occur. If either of these effects persists or worsens, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

This medication can cause serious bleeding if it affects your blood clotting proteins too much. Tell your doctor right away if you have any signs of serious bleeding, including: unusual pain/swelling/discomfort, unusual/easy bruising, prolonged bleeding from cuts or gums, persistent/frequent nosebleeds, unusually heavy/prolonged menstrual flow, pink/dark urine, coughing up blood, vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds, severe headache, dizziness/fainting, unusual or persistent tiredness/weakness, bloody/black/tarry stools.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: stomach/abdominal pain, severe heartburn/nausea/vomiting.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the entire patient information overview for Pradaxa (Dabigatran Etexilate Mesylate)

What is Prescribing information?

The FDA package insert formatted in easy-to-find categories for health professionals and clinicians.

Pradaxa FDA Prescribing Information: Side Effects
(Adverse Reactions)

SIDE EFFECTS

The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Increased Risk of Thrombotic Events after Premature Discontinuation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Risk of Bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia or Puncture [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Thromboembolic and Bleeding Events in Patients with Prosthetic Heart Valves [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • The most serious adverse reactions reported with PRADAXA were related to bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reactions rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Reduction of Risk of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation

The RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulant Therapy) study provided safety information on the use of two doses of PRADAXA and warfarin [see Clinical Studies]. The numbers of patients and their exposures are described in Table 1. Limited information is presented on the 110 mg dosing arm because this dose is not approved.

Table 1 : Summary of Treatment Exposure in RE-LY

  PRADAXA 110 mg twice daily PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily Warfarin
Total number treated 5983 6059 5998
Exposure
   > 12 months 4936 4939 5193
   > 24 months 2387 2405 2470
Mean exposure (months) 20.5 20.3 21.3
Total patient-years 10,242 10,261 10,659

Drug Discontinuation in RE-LY

The rates of adverse reactions leading to treatment discontinuation were 21% for PRADAXA 150 mg and 16% for warfarin. The most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of PRADAXA were bleeding and gastrointestinal events (i.e., dyspepsia, nausea, upper abdominal pain, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and diarrhea).

Bleeding

[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Table 2 shows the number of adjudicated major bleeding events during the treatment period in the RE-LY study, with the bleeding rate per 100 subject-years (%). Major bleeding is defined as bleeding accompanied by one or more of the following: a decrease in hemoglobin of ≥ 2 g/dL, a transfusion of ≥ 2 units of packed red blood cells, bleeding at a critical site or with a fatal outcome. Intracranial hemorrhage included intracerebral (hemorrhagic stroke), subarachnoid, and subdural bleeds.

Table 2 : Adjudicated Major Bleeding Events in Treated Patientsa

Event PRADAXA 150 mg
N = 6059 n (%/yearb)
Warfarin
N = 5998 n (%/yearb)
PRADAXA 150 mg vs. Warfarin HR (95% CI)
Major Bleedingc 350 (3.47) 374 (3.58) 0.97 (0.84, 1.12)
  Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH)d 23 (0.22) 82 (0.77) 0.29 (0.18, 0.46)
    Hemorrhagic Strokee 6 (0.06) 40 (0.37) 0.16 (0.07, 0.37)
    Other ICH 17 (0.17) 46 (0.43) 0.38 (0.22, 0.67)
  Gastrointestinal 162 (1.59) 111 (1.05) 1.51 (1.19, 1.92)
  Fatal Bleedingf 7 (0.07) 16 (0.15) 0.45 (0.19, 1.10)
    ICH 3 (0.03) 9 (0.08) 0.35 (0.09, 1.28)
    Non-intracranialg 4 (0.04) 7 (0.07) 0.59 (0.17, 2.02)
aPatients during treatment or within 2 days of stopping study treatment. Major bleeding events within each subcategory were counted once per patient, but patients may have contributed events to multiple subcategories.
bAnnual event rate per 100 pt-years = 100 * number of subjects with event/subject-years. Subject-years is defined as cumulative number of days from first drug intake to event date, date of last drug intake + 2, death date (whatever occurred first) across all treated subjects divided by 365.25. In case of recurrent events of the same category, the first event was considered.
cDefined as bleeding accompanied by one or more of the following: a decrease in hemoglobin of ≥ 2 g/dL, a transfusion of 2 or more units of packed red blood cells, bleeding at a critical site or with fatal outcome.
dIntracranial bleed included intracerebral (hemorrhagic stroke), subarachnoid, and subdural bleeds.
eOn-treatment analysis based on the safety population, compared to ITT analysis presented in Section 14 Clinical Studies.
fFatal bleed: Adjudicated major bleed as defined above with investigator reported fatal outcome and adjudicated death with primary cause from bleeding.
gNon-intracranial fatal bleed: Adjudicated major bleed as defined above and adjudicated death with primary cause from bleeding but without symptomatic intracranial bleed based on investigator's clinical assessment.

There was a higher rate of any gastrointestinal bleeds in patients receiving PRADAXA 150 mg than in patients receiving warfarin (6.6% vs. 4.2%, respectively).

The risk of major bleeds was similar with PRADAXA 150 mg and warfarin across major subgroups defined by baseline characteristics (see Figure 1), with the exception of age, where there was a trend towards a higher incidence of major bleeding on PRADAXA (hazard ratio 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.5) for patients ≥ 75 years of age.

Figure 1 : Adjudicated Major Bleeding by Baseline Characteristics Including Hemorrhagic Stroke Treated Patients

Adjudicated Major Bleeding by Baseline Characteristics Including Hemorrhagic Stroke Treated Patients - Illustration

Note: The figure above presents effects in various subgroups all of which are baseline characteristics and all of which were pre-specified. The 95% confidence limits that are shown do not take into account how many comparisons were made, nor do they reflect the effect of a particular factor after adjustment for all other factors. Apparent homogeneity or heterogeneity among groups should not be over-interpreted.

Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions

Patients on PRADAXA 150 mg had an increased incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions (35% vs. 24% on warfarin). These were commonly dyspepsia (including abdominal pain upper, abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, and epigastric discomfort) and gastritis-like symptoms (including GERD, esophagitis, erosive gastritis, gastric hemorrhage, hemorrhagic gastritis, hemorrhagic erosive gastritis, and gastrointestinal ulcer).

Hypersensitivity Reactions

In the RE-LY study, drug hypersensitivity (including urticaria, rash, and pruritus), allergic edema, anaphylactic reaction, and anaphylactic shock were reported in < 0.1% of patients receiving PRADAXA.

Treatment and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

PRADAXA was studied in 4387 patients in 4 pivotal, parallel, randomized, double-blind trials. Three of these trials were active-controlled (warfarin) (RE-COVER, RE-COVER II, and RE-MEDY), and one study (RE-SONATE) was placebo-controlled. The demographic characteristics were similar among the 4 pivotal studies and between the treatment groups within these studies. Approximately 60% of the treated patients were male, with a mean age of 55.1 years. The majority of the patients were white (87.7%), 10.3% were Asian, and 1.9% were black with a mean CrCl of 105.6 mL/min.

Bleeding events for the 4 pivotal studies were classified as major bleeding events if at least one of the following criteria applied: fatal bleeding, symptomatic bleeding in a critical area or organ (intraocular, intracranial, intraspinal or intramuscular with compartment syndrome, retroperitoneal bleeding, intra-articular bleeding, or pericardial bleeding), bleeding causing a fall in hemoglobin level of 2.0 g/dL (1.24 mmol/L or more, or leading to transfusion of 2 or more units of whole blood or red cells).

RE-COVER and RE-COVER II studies compared PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily and warfarin for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Patients received 5-10 days of an approved parenteral anticoagulant therapy followed by 6 months, with mean exposure of 164 days, of oral only treatment; warfarin was overlapped with parenteral therapy. Table 3 shows the number of patients experiencing bleeding events in the pooled analysis of RE-COVER and RE-COVER II studies during the full treatment including parenteral and oral only treatment periods after randomization.

Table 3 : Bleeding Events in RE-COVER and RE-COVER II Treated Patients

  Bleeding Events-Full Treatment Period Including Parenteral Treatment
  PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily
N (%)
Warfarin
N (%)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)c
Patients N=2553 N=2554  
Major bleeding eventa 37 (1.4) 51 (2.0) 0.73
(0.48, 1.11)
  Fatal bleeding 1 (0.04) 2 (0.1)  
  Bleeding in a critical area or organ 7 (0.3) 15 (0.6)  
  Fall in hemoglobin ≥ 2 g/dL or transfusion ≥ 2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells 32 (1.3) 38 (1.5)  
Bleeding sites for MBEb
  Intracranial 2 (0.1) 5 (0.2)  
  Retroperitoneal 2 (0.1) 1 (0.04)  
  Intraarticular 2 (0.1) 4 (0.2)  
  Intramuscular 2 (0.1) 6 (0.2)  
  Gastrointestinal 15 (0.6) 14(0.5)  
  Urogenital 7 (0.3) 14 (0.5)  
  Other 8 (0.3) 8 (0.3)  
Clinically relevant non-major bleeding 101 (4.0) 170 (6.7) 0.58
(0.46, 0.75)
Any bleeding 411 (16.1) 567 (22.7) 0.70
(0.61, 0.79)
Note: MBE can belong to more than one criterion.
aPatients with at least one MBE.
bBleeding site based on investigator assessment. Patients can have more than one site of bleeding.
cConfidence interval

The rate of any gastrointestinal bleeds in patients receiving PRADAXA 150 mg in the full treatment period was 3.1% (2.4% on warfarin).

The RE-MEDY and RE-SONATE studies provided safety information on the use of PRADAXA for the reduction in the risk of recurrence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

RE-MEDY was an active-controlled study (warfarin) in which 1430 patients received PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily following 3 to 12 months of oral anticoagulant regimen. Patients in the treatment studies who rolled over into the RE-MEDY study had a combined treatment duration of up to more than 3 years, with mean exposure of 473 days. Table 4 shows the number of patients experiencing bleeding events in the study.

Table 4 : Bleeding Events in RE-MEDY Treated Patients

  PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily
N (%)
Warfarin
N (%)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)c
Patients N=1430 N=1426  
Major bleeding eventa 13 (0.9) 25 (1.8) 0.54
(0.25, 1.16)
  Fatal bleeding 0 1 (0.1)  
  Bleeding in a critical area or organ 7(0.5) 11 (0.8)  
  Fall in hemoglobin ≥ 2 g/dL or transfusion ≥ 2 units of whole blood or packed red blood cells 7(0.5) 16 (1.1)  
Bleeding sites for MBEb
  Intracranial 2 (0.1) 4 (0.3)  
  Intraocular 4 (0.3) 2 (0.1)  
  Retroperitoneal 0 1 (0.1)  
  Intraarticular 0 2 (0.1)  
  Intramuscular 0 4 (0.3)  
  Gastrointestinal 4 (0.3) 8 (0.6)  
  Urogenital 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1)  
  Other 2 (0.1) 4 (0.3)  
Clinically relevant non-major bleeding 71 (5.0) 125 (8.8) 0.56
(0.42, 0.75)
Any bleeding 278 (19.4) 373 (26.2) 0.71
(0.61, 0.83)
Note: MBE can belong to more than one criterion.
aPatients with at least one MBE.
bBleeding site based on investigator assessment. Patients can have more than one site of bleeding.
cConfidence interval

In the RE-MEDY study, the rate of any gastrointestinal bleeds in patients receiving PRADAXA 150 mg was 3.1% (2.2% on warfarin).

RE-SONATE was a placebo-controlled study in which 684 patients received PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily following 6 to 18 months of oral anticoagulant regimen. Patients in the treatment studies who rolled over into the RE-SONATE study had combined treatment duration up to 9 months, with mean exposure of 165 days. Table 5 shows the number of patients experiencing bleeding events in the study.

Table 5 : Bleeding Events in RE-SONATE Treated Patients

  PRADAXA 150 mg twice daily
N (%)
Placebo
N (%)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)c
Patients N=684 N=659  
Major bleeding eventa 2 (0.3) 0  
  Bleeding in a critical area or organ 0 0  
  Gastrointestinalb 2 (0.3) 0  
Clinically relevant non-major bleeding 34 (5.0) 13 (2.0) 2.54
(1.34, 4.82)
Any bleeding 72 (10.5) 40 (6.1) 1.77
(1.20, 2.61)
Note: MBE can belong to more than one criterion.
aPatients with at least one MBE.
bBleeding site based on investigator assessment. Patients can have more than one site of bleeding.
cConfidence interval

In the RE-SONATE study, the rate of any gastrointestinal bleeds in patients receiving PRADAXA 150 mg was 0.7% (0.3% on placebo).

Clinical Myocardial Infarction Events

In the active-controlled VTE studies, a higher rate of clinical myocardial infarction was reported in patients who received PRADAXA [20 (0.66 per 100 patient-years)] than in those who received warfarin [5 (0.17 per 100 patient-years)]. In the placebo-controlled study, a similar rate of non-fatal and fatal clinical myocardial infarction was reported in patients who received PRADAXA [1 (0.32 per 100 patient-years)] and in those who received placebo [1 (0.34 per 100 patient-years)].

Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions

In the four pivotal studies, patients on PRADAXA 150 mg had a similar incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions (24.7% vs. 22.7% on warfarin). Dyspepsia (including abdominal pain upper, abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, and epigastric discomfort) occurred in patients on PRADAXA in 7.5% vs. 5.5% on warfarin, and gastritis-like symptoms (including gastritis, GERD, esophagitis, erosive gastritis and gastric hemorrhage) occurred at 3.0% vs. 1.7%, respectively.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

In the 4 pivotal studies, drug hypersensitivity (including urticaria, rash, and pruritus), allergic edema, anaphylactic reaction, and anaphylactic shock were reported in 0.1% of patients receiving PRADAXA.

Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Following Hip Replacement Surgery

PRADAXA was studied in 5476 patients, randomized and treated in two double-blind, active-controlled non-inferiority trials (RE-NOVATE and RE-NOVATE II). The demographic characteristics were similar across the two studies and between the treatment groups within these studies. Approximately 45.3 % of the treated patients were male, with a mean age of 63.2 years. The majority of the patients were white (96.1%), 3.6% were Asian, and 0.3% were black with a mean CrCl of 92 mL/min.

Bleeding events for the RE-NOVATE and RE-NOVATE II studies were classified as major bleeding events if at least one of the following criteria applied: fatal bleeding, symptomatic bleeding in a critical area or organ (intraocular, intracranial, intraspinal or retroperitoneal bleeding), bleeding causing a fall in hemoglobin level of 2.0 g/dL (1.24 mmol/L) or more, or leading to transfusion of 2 or more units of whole blood or red cells, requiring treatment cessation or leading to re-operation.

The RE-NOVATE study compared PRADAXA 75 mg taken orally 1-4 hours after surgery followed by 150 mg once daily, PRADAXA 110 mg taken orally 1-4 hours after surgery followed by 220 mg once daily and subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg once daily initiated the evening before surgery for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients who had undergone hip replacement surgery. The RE-NOVATE II study compared PRADAXA 110 mg taken orally 1-4 hours after surgery followed by 220 mg once daily and subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg once daily initiated the evening before surgery for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients who had undergone hip replacement surgery. In the RE-NOVATE and RE-NOVATE II studies, patients received 28-35 days of PRADAXA or enoxaparin with median exposure of 33 days. Tables 6 and 7 show the number of patients experiencing bleeding events in the analysis of RE-NOVATE and RE-NOVATE II.

Table 6 : Bleeding Events in RE-NOVATE Treated Patients

  PRADAXA 220 mg
N (%)
Enoxaparin
N (%)
Patients N=1146 N=1154
Major bleeding event 23 (2.0) 18 (1.6)
Clinically relevant non-major bleeding 48 (4.2) 40 (3.5)
Any bleeding 141 (12.3) 132 (11.4)

Table 7 : Bleeding Events in RE-NOVATE II Treated Patients

  PRADAXA 220 mg
N (%)
Enoxaparin
N (%)
Patients N=1010 N=1003
Major bleeding event 14 (1.4) 9 (0.9)
Clinically relevant non-major bleeding 26 (2.6) 20 (2.0)
Any bleeding 98 (9.7) 83 (8.3)

In the two studies, the rate of major gastrointestinal bleeds in patients receiving PRADAXA and enoxaparin was the same (0.1%) and for any gastrointestinal bleeds was 1.4% for PRADAXA 220 mg and 0.9% for enoxaparin.

Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions

In the two studies, the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions for patients on PRADAXA 220 mg and enoxaparin was 39.5% and 39.5%, respectively. Dyspepsia (including abdominal pain upper, abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, and epigastric discomfort) occurred in patients on PRADAXA 220 mg in 4.1% vs. 3.8% on enoxaparin, and gastritis-like symptoms (including gastritis, GERD, esophagitis, erosive gastritis and gastric hemorrhage) occurred at 0.6% vs. 1.0%, respectively.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

In the two studies, drug hypersensitivity (such as urticaria, rash, and pruritus) was reported in 0.3% of patients receiving PRADAXA 220 mg.

Clinical Myocardial Infarction Events

In the two studies, clinical myocardial infarction was reported in 2 (0.1%) of patients who received PRADAXA 220 mg and 6 (0.3%) of patients who received enoxaparin.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of PRADAXA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of PRADAXA: angioedema, thrombocytopenia, esophageal ulcer.

Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Pradaxa (Dabigatran Etexilate Mesylate)

Pradaxa - User Reviews

Pradaxa User Reviews

Now you can gain knowledge and insight about a drug treatment with Patient Discussions.

Here is a collection of user reviews for the medication Pradaxa sorted by most helpful. Patient Discussions FAQs

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

 

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


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