"Nov. 27, 2012 -- Countries that mix high-fructose corn syrup into processed foods and soft drinks have higher rates of diabetes than countries that don't use the sweetener, a new study shows.
In a study published in the journal Glo"...
Mechanism of Action
Repaglinide lowers blood glucose levels by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas. This action is dependent upon functioning beta (▀) cells in the pancreatic islets. Insulin release is glucose-dependent and diminishes at low glucose concentrations.
Repaglinide closes ATP-dependent potassium channels in the ▀-cell membrane by binding at characterizable sites. This potassium channel blockade depolarizes the ▀-cell, which leads to an opening of calcium channels. The resulting increased calcium influx induces insulin secretion. The ion channel mechanism is highly tissue selective with low affinity for heart and skeletal muscle.
After oral administration, repaglinide is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After single and multiple oral doses in healthy subjects or in patients, peak plasma drug levels (Cmax) occur within 1 hour (Tmax). Repaglinide is rapidly eliminated from the blood stream with a half-life of approximately 1 hour. The mean absolute bioavailability is 56%. When repaglinide was given with food, the mean Tmax was not changed, but the mean Cmax and AUC (area under the time/plasma concentration curve) were decreased 20% and 12.4%, respectively.
After intravenous (IV) dosing in healthy subjects, the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 31 L, and the total body clearance (CL) was 38 L/h. Protein binding and binding to human serum albumin was greater than 98%.
Repaglinide is completely metabolized by oxidative biotransformation and direct conjugation with glucuronic acid after either an IV or oral dose. The major metabolites are an oxidized dicarboxylic acid (M2), the aromatic amine (M1), and the acyl glucuronide (M7). The cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, specifically 2C8 and 3A4, have been shown to be involved in the N-dealkylation of repaglinide to M2 and the further oxidation to M1. Metabolites do not contribute to the glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide.
Repaglinide appears to be a substrate for active hepatic uptake transporter (organic anion transporting protein OATP1B1).
Within 96 hours after dosing with 14C-repaglinide as a single, oral dose, approximately 90% of the radiolabel was recovered in the feces and approximately 8% in the urine. Only 0.1% of the dose is cleared in the urine as parent compound. The major metabolite (M2) accounted for 60% of the administered dose. Less than 2% of parent drug was recovered in feces.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of repaglinide obtained from a single-dose, crossover study in healthy subjects and from a multiple-dose, parallel, dose-proportionality (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg) study in patients with type 2 diabetes are summarized in the following table:
|Parameter||Patients with type 2 diabetesa|
|Dose||AUC0-24 hr Mean ±SD (ng/mL*hr):|
|0.5 mg||68.9 ± 154.4|
|1 mg||125.8 ± 129.8|
|2 mg||152.4 ± 89.6|
|4 mg||447.4 ± 211.3|
|Dose||Cmax0-5 hr Mean ±SD (ng/mL):|
|0.5 mg||9.8 ± 10.2|
|1 mg||18.3 ± 9.1|
|2 mg||26.0 ± 13.0|
|4 mg||65.8 ± 30.1|
|Dose||Tmax0-5 hr Means (SD)|
|0.5 - 4 mg||1.0 - 1.4 (0.3 - 0.5) hr|
|Dose||T½ Means (Ind Range)|
|0.5 - 4 mg||1.0 - 1.4 (0.4 - 8.0) hr|
|CL based on i.v.||38 ± 16 L/hr|
|Vss based on i.v.||31 ± 12 L|
|AbsBio||56 ± 9%|
|a dosed preprandially with three meals
CL = total body clearance
Vss = volume of distribution at steady state
AbsBio = absolute bioavailability
These data indicate that repaglinide did not accumulate in serum. Clearance of oral repaglinide did not change over the 0.5 - 4 mg dose range, indicating a linear relationship between dose and plasma drug levels.
Variability of Exposure
Repaglinide AUC after multiple doses of 0.25 to 4 mg with each meal varies over a wide range. The intra-individual and inter-individual coefficients of variation were 36% and 69%, respectively. AUC over the therapeutic dose range included 69 to 1005 ng/mL*hr, but AUC exposure up to 5417 ng/mL*hr was reached in dose escalation studies without apparent adverse consequences.
Geriatric: Healthy volunteers were treated with a regimen of 2 mg taken before each of 3 meals. There were no significant differences in repaglinide pharmacokinetics between the group of patients < 65 years of age and a comparably sized group of patients ≥ 65 years of age (See PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use).
Pediatric: No studies have been performed in pediatric patients.
Gender: A comparison of pharmacokinetics in males and females showed the AUC over the 0.5 mg to 4 mg dose range to be 15% to 70% higher in females with type 2 diabetes. This difference was not reflected in the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes (male: 16%; female: 17%) or other adverse events. With respect to gender, no change in general dosage recommendation is indicated since dosage for each patient should be individualized to achieve optimal clinical response.
Race: No pharmacokinetic studies to assess the effects of race have been performed, but in a U.S. 1-year study in patients with type 2 diabetes, the blood glucose-lowering effect was comparable between Caucasians (n=297) and African-Americans (n=33). In a U.S. dose-response study, there was no apparent difference in exposure (AUC) between Caucasians (n=74) and Hispanics (n=33).
Drug interaction studies performed in healthy volunteers show that PRANDIN had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of digoxin, theophylline, or warfarin. Coadministration of cimetidine with PRANDIN did not significantly alter the absorption and disposition of repaglinide.
Additionally, the following drugs were studied in healthy volunteers with co-administration of PRANDIN. Listed below are the results:
CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 Inhibitors/Inducer
Gemfibrozil and Itraconazole: Co-administration of gemfibrozil (600 mg) and a single dose of 0.25 mg PRANDIN (after 3 days of twice-daily 600 mg gemfibrozil) resulted in an 8.1-fold higher repaglinide AUC and prolonged repaglinide half-life from 1.3 to 3.7 hr. Coadministration with itraconazole and a single dose of 0.25 mg PRANDIN (on the third day of a regimen of 200 mg initial dose, twice-daily 100 mg itraconazole) resulted in a 1.4-fold higher repaglinide AUC. Co-administration of both gemfibrozil and itraconazole with PRANDIN resulted in a 19-fold higher repaglinide AUC and prolonged repaglinide half-life to 6.1 hr. Plasma repaglinide concentration at 7 h increased 28.6-fold with gemfibrozil co-administration and 70.4-fold with the gemfibrozil-itraconazole combination (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).
Fenofibrate: Co-administration of 200 mg fenofibrate with a single dose of 0.25 mg repaglinide (after 5 days of once daily fenofibrate 200 mg) resulted in unchanged AUC and Cmax values for both drugs.
Ketoconazole: Co-administration of 200 mg ketoconazole and a single dose of 2 mg PRANDIN (after 4 days of once daily ketoconazole 200 mg) resulted in a 15% and 16% increase in repaglinide AUC and Cmax, respectively. The increases were from 20.2 ng/mL to 23.5 ng/mL for Cmax and from 38.9 ng/mL*hr to 44.9 ng/mL*hr for AUC.
Trimethoprim: Co-administration of 160 mg trimethoprim and a single dose of 0.25 mg PRANDIN (after 2 days of twice daily and one dose on the third day of trimethoprim 160 mg) resulted in a 61% and 41% increase in repaglinide AUC and Cmax, respectively. The increase in AUC was from 5.9 ng/mL*hr to 9.6 ng/mL*hr and the increase in Cmax was from 4.7 ng/mL to 6.6 ng/mL.
Cyclosporine: Co-administration of 100 mg cyclosporine with a single dose of 0.25 mg repaglinide (after two 100 mg doses of cyclosporine twelve hours apart) increased the repaglinide (0.25 mg) Cmax 1.8-fold and the AUC 2.5-fold in an interaction study with healthy volunteers (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).
Rifampin: Co-administration of 600 mg rifampin and a single dose of 4 mg PRANDIN (after 6 days of once daily rifampin 600 mg) resulted in a 32% and 26% decrease in repaglinide AUC and Cmax, respectively. The decreases were from 40.4 ng/mL to 29.7 ng/mL for Cmax and from 56.8 ng/mL*hr to 38.7 ng/mL*hr for AUC. In another study, co-administration of 600 mg rifampin and a single dose of 4 mg PRANDIN (after 6 days of once daily rifampin 600 mg) resulted in a 48% and 17% decrease in repaglinide median AUC and median Cmax respectively. The median decreases were from 54 ng/mL*hr to 28 ng/mL*hr for AUC and from 35 ng/mL to 29 ng/mL for Cmax. PRANDIN administered by itself (after 7 days of once daily rifampin 600 mg) resulted in an 80% and 79% decrease in repaglinide median AUC and Cmax respectively. The decreases were from 54 ng/mL*hr to 11 ng/mL*hr for AUC and from 35 ng/mL to 7.5 ng/mL for Cmax.
Levonorgestrel & Ethinyl Estradiol: Co-administration of a combination tablet of 0.15 mg levonorgestrel and 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol administered once daily for 21 days with 2 mg PRANDIN administered three times daily (days 1-4) and a single dose on Day 5 resulted in 20% increases in repaglinide, levonorgestrel, and ethinyl estradiol Cmax. The increase in repaglinide Cmax was from 40.5 ng/mL to 47.4 ng/mL. Ethinyl estradiol AUC parameters were increased by 20%, while repaglinide and levonorgestrel AUC values remained unchanged.
Simvastatin: Co-administration of 20 mg simvastatin and a single dose of 2 mg PRANDIN (after 4 days of once daily simvastatin 20 mg and three times daily PRANDIN 2 mg) resulted in a 26% increase in repaglinide Cmax from 23.6 ng/mL to 29.7 ng/mL. AUC was unchanged.
Nifedipine: Co-administration of 10 mg nifedipine with a single dose of 2 mg PRANDIN (after 4 days of three times daily nifedipine 10 mg and three times daily PRANDIN 2 mg) resulted in unchanged AUC and Cmax values for both drugs.
Clarithromycin: Co-administration of 250 mg clarithromycin and a single dose of 0.25 mg PRANDIN (after 4 days of twice daily clarithromycin 250 mg) resulted in a 40% and 67% increase in repaglinide AUC and Cmax, respectively. The increase in AUC was from 5.3 ng/mL*hr to 7.5 ng/mL*hr and the increase in Cmax was from 4.4 ng/mL to 7.3 ng/mL.
Deferasirox: Co-administration of deferasirox (30 mg/kg/day for 4 days) and repaglinide (single dose of 0.5 mg) resulted in an increase in repaglinide systemic exposure (AUC) to 2.3-fold of control and an increase in Cmax of 62% (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).
Renal Insufficiency: Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of repaglinide were compared between patients with type 2 diabetes and normal renal function (CrCl > 80 mL/min), mild to moderate renal function impairment (CrCl = 40 – 80 mL/min), and severe renal function impairment (CrCl = 20 – 40 mL/min). Both AUC and Cmax of repaglinide were similar in patients with normal and mild to moderately impaired renal function (mean values 56.7 ng/mL*hr vs 57.2 ng/mL*hr and 37.5 ng/mL vs 37.7 ng/mL, respectively.) Patients with severely reduced renal function had elevated mean AUC and Cmax values (98.0 ng/mL*hr and 50.7 ng/mL, respectively), but this study showed only a weak correlation between repaglinide levels and creatinine clearance. Initial dose adjustment does not appear to be necessary for patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction. However, patients with type 2 diabetes who have severe renal function impairment should initiate PRANDIN therapy with the 0.5 mg dose – subsequently, patients should be carefully titrated. Studies were not conducted in patients with creatinine clearances below 20 mL/min or patients with renal failure requiring hemodialysis.
Hepatic Insufficiency: A single-dose, open-label study was conducted in 12 healthy subjects and 12 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) classified by Child-Pugh scale and caffeine clearance. Patients with moderate to severe impairment of liver function had higher and more prolonged serum concentrations of both total and unbound repaglinide than healthy subjects (AUChealthy: 91.6 ng/mL*hr; AUCCLD patients: 368.9 ng/mL*hr; Cmax, healthy: 46.7 ng/mL; Cmax, CLD patients: 105.4 ng/mL). AUC was statistically correlated with caffeine clearance. No difference in glucose profiles was observed across patient groups. Patients with impaired liver function may be exposed to higher concentrations of repaglinide and its associated metabolites than would patients with normal liver function receiving usual doses. Therefore, PRANDIN should be used cautiously in patients with impaired liver function. Longer intervals between dose adjustments should be utilized to allow full assessment of response.
A four-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response trial was conducted in 138 patients with type 2 diabetes using doses ranging from 0.25 to 4 mg taken with each of three meals. PRANDIN therapy resulted in dose-proportional glucose lowering over the full dose range. Plasma insulin levels increased after meals and reverted toward baseline before the next meal. Most of the fasting blood glucose-lowering effect was demonstrated within 1-2 weeks.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-month dose titration study, PRANDINor placebo doses for each patient were increased weekly from 0.25 mg through 0.5, 1, and 2 mg, to a maximum of 4 mg, until a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level < 160 mg/dL was achieved or the maximum dose reached. The dose that achieved the targeted control or the maximum dose was continued to end of study. FPG and 2-hour post-prandial glucose (PPG) increased in patients receiving placebo and decreased in patients treated with repaglinide. Differences between the repaglinide- and placebo-treated groups were -61 mg/dL (FPG) and -104 mg/dL (PPG). The between-group change in HbA1c, which reflects long-term glycemic control, was 1.7% units.
PRANDIN vs. Placebo Treatment: Mean FPG, PPG, and HbA1c Changes
from baseline after 3 months of treatment
|FPG (mg/dL)||PPG (mg/dL)||HbA1c (%)|
|Change from Baseline (at last visit)||30.3||-31.0*||56.5||-47.6*||1.1||-0.6*|
|FPG = fasting plasma glucose
PPG = post-prandial glucose
PL = placebo (N=33)
R = repaglinide (N=66)
*: p < 0.05 for between group difference
Another double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in 362 patients treated for 24 weeks. The efficacy of 1 and 4 mg preprandial doses was demonstrated by lowering of fasting blood glucose and by HbA1c at the end of the study. HbA1c for the PRANDIN-treated groups (1 and 4 mg groups combined) at the end of the study was decreased compared to the placebo-treated group in previously na´ve patients and in patients previously treated with oral hypoglycemic agents by 2.1% units and 1.7% units, respectively. In this fixed-dose trial, patients who were na´ve to oral hypoglycemic agent therapy and patients in relatively good glycemic control at baseline (HbA1c below 8%) showed greater blood glucose-lowering including a higher frequency of hypoglycemia. Patients who were previously treated and who had baseline HbA1c > 8% reported hypoglycemia at the same rate as patients randomized to placebo. There was no average gain in body weight when patients previously treated with oral hypoglycemic agents were switched to PRANDIN. The average weight gain in patients treated with PRANDIN and not previously treated with sulfonylurea drugs was 3.3%.
The dosing of PRANDIN relative to meal-related insulin release was studied in three trials including 58 patients. Glycemic control was maintained during a period in which the meal and dosing pattern was varied (2, 3 or 4 meals per day; before meals x 2, 3, or 4) compared with a period of 3 regular meals and 3 doses per day (before meals x 3). It was also shown that PRANDIN can be administered at the start of a meal, 15 minutes before, or 30 minutes before the meal with the same blood glucose-lowering effect.
PRANDIN was compared to other insulin secretagogues in 1-year controlled trials to demonstrate comparability of efficacy and safety. Hypoglycemia was reported in 16% of 1228 PRANDIN patients, 20% of 417 glyburide patients, and 19% of 81 glipizide patients. Of PRANDIN-treated patients with symptomatic hypoglycemia, none developed coma or required hospitalization.
PRANDIN was studied in combination with metformin in 83 patients not satisfactorily controlled on exercise, diet, and metformin alone. PRANDIN dosage was titrated for 4 to 8 weeks, followed by a 3-month maintenance period. Combination therapy with PRANDIN and metformin resulted in significantly greater improvement in glycemic control as compared to repaglinide or metformin monotherapy. HbA1c was improved by 1% unit and FPG decreased by an additional 35 mg/dL. In this study where metformin dosage was kept constant, the combination therapy of PRANDIN and metformin showed dose-sparing effects with respect to PRANDIN. The greater efficacy response of the combination group was achieved at a lower daily repaglinide dosage than in the PRANDIN monotherapy group (see Table).
PRANDIN and Metformin Therapy: Mean Changes from Baseline
in Glycemic Parameters and Weight after 4 to 5 Months of Treatment1
|Median Final Dose (mg/day)||12||6 (PRANDIN) 1500 (metformin)||1500|
|HbA1c (% units)||-0.38||-1.41*||-0.33|
|1 based on intent-to-treat analysis
*: p < 0.05, for pairwise comparisons with PRANDIN and metformin.
#: p < 0.05, for pairwise comparison with metformin.
A combination therapy regimen of PRANDIN and pioglitazone was compared to monotherapy with either agent alone in a 24-week trial that enrolled 246 patients previously treated with sulfonylurea or metformin monotherapy (HbA1c > 7.0%). Numbers of patients treated were: PRANDIN (N = 61), pioglitazone (N = 62), combination (N = 123). PRANDIN dosage was titrated during the first 12 weeks, followed by a 12-week maintenance period. Combination therapy resulted in significantly greater improvement in glycemic control as compared to monotherapy (figure below). The changes from baseline for completers in FPG (mg/dL) and HbA1c (%), respectively were: -39.8 and -0.1 for PRANDIN, -35.3 and -0.1 for pioglitazone and -92.4 and -1.9 for the combination. In this study where pioglitazone dosage was kept constant, the combination therapy group showed dose-sparing effects with respect to PRANDIN (see figure legend). The greater efficacy response of the combination group was achieved at a lower daily repaglinide dosage than in the PRANDIN monotherapy group. Mean weight increases associated with combination, PRANDIN and pioglitazone therapy were 5.5 kg, 0.3 kg, and 2.0 kg respectively.
HbA1c Values from PRANDIN / Pioglitazone Combination
HbA1c values by study week for patients who completed study (combination, N = 101; PRANDIN, N = 35, pioglitazone, N = 26). Subjects with FPG above 270 mg/dL were withdrawn from the study. Pioglitazone dose: fixed at 30 mg/day; PRANDIN median final dose: 6 mg/day for combination and 10 mg/day for monotherapy.
A combination therapy regimen of PRANDIN and rosiglitazone was compared to monotherapy with either agent alone in a 24-week trial that enrolled 252 patients previously treated with sulfonylurea or metformin (HbA1c > 7.0%). Combination therapy resulted in significantly greater improvement in glycemic control as compared to monotherapy (table below). The glycemic effects of the combination therapy were dose-sparing with respect to both total daily PRANDIN dosage and total daily rosiglitazone dosage (see table legend). A greater efficacy response of the combination therapy group was achieved with half the median daily dose of PRANDIN and rosiglitazone, as compared to the respective monotherapy groups. Mean weight change associated with combination therapy was greater than that of PRANDIN monotherapy.
Mean Changes from Baseline in Glycemic Parameters and
Weight in a 24-Week PRANDIN/ Rosiglitazone Combination Study1
|Change by 24 weeks||-0.17||-1.43?||-0.56|
|Change by 24 weeks||-54||-94?||-67|
|Change in Weight (kg)||1.3||+4.5#||3.3|
|1 based on intent-to-treat analysis
*: p-value ≤ 0.001 for comparison to either monotherapy
#: p-value < 0.001 for comparison to PRANDIN
Final median doses: rosiglitazone - 4 mg/day for combination and 8 mg/day for monotherapy; PRANDIN - 6 mg/day for combination and 12 mg/day for monotherapy
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/14/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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