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All glinides, including PRANDIN, can cause hypoglycemia [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Severe hypoglycemia can cause seizures, may be life-threatening, or cause death. Hypoglycemia can impair concentration ability and reaction time; this may place an individual and others at risk in situations where these abilities are important (e.g., driving or operating other machinery).
Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly and symptoms may differ in each individual and change over time in the same individual. Symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia may be less pronounced in patients with longstanding diabetes, in patients with diabetic nerve disease, in patients using medications that block the sympathetic nervous system (e.g., beta-blockers) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS], or in patients who experience recurrent hypoglycemia.
Factors which may increase the risk of hypoglycemia include changes in meal pattern (e.g., macronutrient content), changes in level of physical activity, changes to co-administered medication [see DRUG INTERACTIONS], and concomitant use with other antidiabetic agents. Patients with renal or hepatic impairment may be at higher risk of hypoglycemia [see Use In Specific Populations].
Patients should administer PRANDIN before meals and be instructed to skip the dose of PRANDIN if a meal is skipped. In patients who experience hypoglycemia, the dose of PRANDIN should be reduced [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Patients and caregivers must be educated to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an essential role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia. In patients at higher risk for hypoglycemia and patients who have reduced symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia, increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended.
Serious Cardiovascular Adverse Reactions With Concomitant Use With NPH-insulin
Across seven controlled trials, there were six serious adverse events of myocardial ischemia in patients treated with PRANDIN plus NPH-insulin from two studies, and one event in patients using insulin formulations alone from another study [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. PRANDIN is not indicated for use in combination with NPH-insulin.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with PRANDIN.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in rats at doses up to 120 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 60 times clinical exposure on a mg/m2 basis, the incidences of benign adenomas of the thyroid and liver were increased in male rats. No evidence of carcinogenicity was found in female rats. The higher incidences of thyroid and liver tumors in male rats were not seen at lower dose of 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day respectively (which are over 15 and 30 times, respectively, clinical exposures on a mg/m2 basis). In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in mice at doses up to 500 mg/kg/day, no evidence of carcinogenicity was found in mice (which is approximately 125 times clinical exposure on a mg/m2 basis).
Repaglinide was non-genotoxic in a battery of in vivo and in vitro studies: Bacterial mutagenesis (Ames test), in vitro forward cell mutation assay in V79 cells (HGPRT), in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, unscheduled and replicating DNA synthesis in rat liver, and in vivo mouse and rat micronucleus tests.
In a rat fertility study, repaglinide was administered to male and female rats at doses up to 300 and 80 mg/kg/day, respectively. No adverse effects on fertility were observed (which are over 40 times clinical exposure on a mg/m2 basis).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. It is unknown whether PRANDIN can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. PRANDIN should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Repaglinide was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits at doses 40 times (rats) and approximately 0.8 times (rabbit) clinical exposure (on a mg/m2 basis) throughout pregnancy. Offspring of rat dams exposed to repaglinide at 15 times clinical exposure on a mg/m2 basis during days 17 to 22 of gestation and during lactation developed nonteratogenic skeletal deformities consisting of shortening, thickening, and bending of the humerus during the postnatal period. This effect was not seen at doses up to 2.5 times clinical exposure (on a mg/m2 basis) on days 1 to 22 of pregnancy or at higher doses given during days 1 to 16 of pregnancy. Relevant human exposure has not occurred to date and therefore the safety of PRANDIN administration throughout pregnancy or lactation cannot be established.
Although it is not known whether repaglinide is excreted in human milk some oral agents are known to be excreted by this route. Because the potential for hypoglycemia in nursing infants may exist, and because of the effects on nursing animals, a decision should be made as to whether PRANDIN should be discontinued in nursing mothers, or if mothers should discontinue nursing. If PRANDIN is discontinued and if diet alone is inadequate for controlling blood glucose, insulin therapy should be considered. In rat reproduction studies, measurable levels of repaglinide were detected in the breast milk of the dams and lowered blood glucose levels were observed in the pups. Cross fostering studies indicated that skeletal changes [see Pregnancy] could be induced in control pups nursed by treated dams, although this occurred to a lesser degree than those pups treated in utero.
Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
In clinical studies of 24 weeks or greater duration, 415 patients were over 65 years of age and no patients were greater than 75 years of age. In one-year, active-controlled trials, no differences were seen in effectiveness or adverse events between these subjects and those less than 65. There was no increase in frequency or severity of hypoglycemia in older subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals to PRANDIN therapy cannot be ruled out.
Pharmacokinetic studies of repaglinide were conducted in patients with mild to moderate renal function impairment (CrCl = 40 – 80 mL/min), and severe renal function impairment (CrCl = 20 – 40 mL/min). Initial dose adjustment is not required in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction. However, patients with severe renal function impairment should initiate PRANDIN therapy with the 0.5 mg dose and be carefully titrated [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Studies were not conducted in patients with creatinine clearances below 20 mL/min or patients with renal failure requiring hemodialysis.
A single-dose study was conducted 12 patients with chronic liver disease. Patients with moderate to severe impairment of liver function had higher and more prolonged serum concentrations. Therefore, PRANDIN should be used cautiously in patients with impaired liver function. Longer intervals between dose adjustments may be needed to allow full assessment of response.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/13/2017
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