Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)?
- What causes PMDD?
- What are the symptoms of PMDD?
- When should I call a doctor about PMDD?
- How is PMDD diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for PMDD?
- What are the complications of PMDD?
- Can PMDD be prevented?
- What is the outlook for PMDD?
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) At A Glance
- Take the PMDD Quiz!
- A Visual Guide to PMS Slideshow
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) FAQs
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
What are the complications of PMDD?
PMDD by definition is characterized by symptoms severe enough to interfere with daily functioning and activities. If untreated, these symptoms can significantly impact quality of life and a woman's ability to function at work, school, or home. Further, mood changes and depression that may accompany PMDD can be associated with suicidal thoughts and behavior.
Can PMDD be prevented?
Since PMDD is thought to result from interactions between ovarian hormones and neurotransmitters in the brain, there is no known way to prevent its occurrence.
What is the outlook for PMDD?
Although the symptoms of PMDD can be debilitating, treatments are available that are effective in controlling symptoms for a majority of women as described above.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) At A Glance
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) can be considered to be a severe
form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), with symptoms that interfere with daily
activities and functioning.
- PMDD occurs in 3% to 8% of menstruating women.
- Fatigue, mood changes, and abdominal bloating are common symptoms, but
numerous other symptoms may occur.
- PMDD is diagnosed by a symptom diary or chart in which a woman records her
daily symptoms for at least two consecutive menstrual cycles.
- PMDD is effectively treated by medications including SSRIs and drugs that suppress ovulation and the production of ovarian hormones.
REFERENCE: eMedicine.com, "Premenstrual dysphoric disorder."
Last Editorial Review: 10/7/2009 12:28:41 PM
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