Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) facts
- What is premenstrual syndrome?
- How common is PMS?
- When was PMS discovered?
- What causes PMS?
- What are the symptoms of PMS?
- How is the diagnosis of PMS made?
- What conditions are like PMS?
- How is PMS distinguished from other conditions?
- What treatments are available for PMS?
- What medications are used to treat PMS?
- Are there herbal or natural remedies for PMS?
- Can exercise help relieve some of the symptoms of PMS?
- Is there a "cure" for PMS?
- Patient Comments: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Effective Treatments
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Premenstrual syndrome facts
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a set of specific physical and psychological features.
- Physical features include breast tenderness and bloating.
- Psychological changes may include anger and depression.
- PMS occurs in the last half of a woman's menstrual cycle.
- The exact cause is unknown but is believed to be related to interactions between sex hormones and brain chemicals (neurotransmitters).
- PMS can be mimicked by, and must be distinguished from other disorders.
- A helpful diagnostic tool for PMS is a menstrual diary.
- Treatment options for PMS include exercise, a healthy lifestyle, emotional support from family and friends, and medications.
- Possible remedies for PMS include diuretics, pain killers, oral contraceptives, drugs that suppress ovarian function, and antidepressants.
What is premenstrual syndrome?
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a combination of emotional, physical, psychological, and mood disturbances that occur after a woman's ovulation and typically ending with the onset of her menstrual flow. The most common mood-related symptoms are irritability, depression, crying, oversensitivity, and mood swings. The most common physical symptoms are fatigue, bloating, breast tenderness (mastalgia), acne, and appetite changes with food cravings.
A more severe form of PMS, known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), also known as late luteal phase dysphoric disorder) occurs in a smaller number of women and leads to significant loss of function because of unusually severe symptoms. The American Psychiatric Association characterizes PMDD as a severe form of PMS in which anger, irritability, and anxiety or tension are especially prominent.
Next: How common is PMS?
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