"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved the Gastric Emptying Breath Test (GEBT), a new non-invasive test to aid in the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying, known as gastroparesis.
Current tests used to diagnose gastroparesis "...
Serious Fluid and Serum Chemistry Abnormalities
Advise patients to hydrate adequately before, during, and after the use of PREPOPIK. Use caution in patients with congestive heart failure when replacing fluids. If a patient develops significant vomiting or signs of dehydration including signs of orthostatic hypotension after taking PREPOPIK, consider performing post-colonoscopy lab tests (electrolytes, creatinine, and BUN) and treat accordingly. Approximately 20% of patients in both arms (PREPOPIK, 2L of PEG + E plus two x 5-mg bisacodyl tablets) of clinical trials of PREPOPIK had orthostatic changes (changes in blood pressure and/or heart rate) on the day of colonoscopy. In clinical trials orthostatic changes were documented out to seven days post colonoscopy. [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]
Fluid and electrolyte disturbances can lead to serious adverse events including cardiac arrhythmias or seizures and renal impairment. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities should be corrected before treatment with PREPOPIK. In addition, use caution when prescribing Prepopik for patients who have conditions or who are using medications that increase the risk for fluid and electrolyte disturbances or that may increase the risk of adverse events of seizure, arrhythmia, and renal impairment.
There have been reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures with the use of bowel preparation products in patients with no prior history of seizures. The seizure cases were associated with electrolyte abnormalities (e.g., hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia) and low serum osmolality. The neurologic abnormalities resolved with correction of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities.
Use caution when prescribing PREPOPIK for patients with a history of seizures and in patients at risk of seizure, such as patients taking medications that lower the seizure threshold (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants), patients withdrawing from alcohol or benzodiazepines, patients with known or suspected hyponatremia. [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]
Use in Patients with Renal Impairment
As in other magnesium containing bowel preparations, use caution when prescribing PREPOPIK for patients with impaired renal function or patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function (such as diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). These patients may be at increased risk for renal injury. Advise these patients of the importance of adequate hydration before during and after the use of PREPOPIK. Consider performing baseline and post-colonoscopy laboratory tests (electrolytes, creatinine, and BUN) in these patients. In patients with severely reduced renal function (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min), accumulation of magnesium in plasma may occur.
There have been rare reports of serious arrhythmias associated with the use of ionic osmotic laxative products for bowel preparation. Use caution when prescribing PREPOPIK for patients at increased risk of arrhythmias (e.g., patients with a history of prolonged QT, uncontrolled arrhythmias, recent myocardial infarction, unstable angina, congestive heart failure, or cardiomyopathy). Pre-dose and post-colonoscopy ECGs should be considered in patients at increased risk of serious cardiac arrhythmias.
Colonic Mucosal Ulceration, Ischemic Colitis and Ulcerative Colitis
Osmotic laxatives may produce colonic mucosal aphthous ulcerations and there have been reports of more serious cases of ischemic colitis requiring hospitalization. Concurrent use of additional stimulant laxatives with PREPOPIK may increase this risk. The potential for mucosal ulcerations should be considered when interpreting colonoscopy findings in patients with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease, [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]
Use in Patients with Significant Gastrointestinal Disease
If gastrointestinal obstruction or perforation is suspected, perform appropriate diagnostic studies to rule out these conditions before administering PREPOPIK. Use with caution in patients with severe active ulcerative colitis.
Not for Direct Ingestion
Each packet must be dissolved in 5 ounces of cold water and administered at separate times according to the dosing regimen. Ingestion of additional water is important to patient tolerance. Direct ingestion of the undissolved powder may increase the risk of nausea, vomiting, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbances.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
- Ask patients to let you know if they have trouble swallowing or are prone to regurgitation or aspiration.
- Tell patients not to take other laxatives while they are taking PREPOPIK.
- Tell patients that if they experience severe bloating, distention or abdominal pain following the first packet of PREPOPIK, delay the second administration until the symptoms resolve.
- Instruct patients to contact their healthcare provider if they develop signs and symptoms of dehydration.
- Not for Direct Ingestion: Each packet must be dissolved in 5 ounces of cold water and administered at separate times according to the dosing regimen. Ingestion of additional water is important to patient tolerance. Direct ingestion of the undissolved powder may increase the risk of nausea, vomiting, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbances. Inform patients that oral medication administered within one hour of the start of administration of PREPOPIK solution may not be absorbed completely.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential or studies to evaluate mutagenic potential have not been performed with PREPOPIK. However, sodium picosulfate was not mutagenic in the Ames test, the mouse lymphoma assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.
In an oral fertility study in rats, PREPOPIK did not cause any significant adverse effect on male or female fertility parameters up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg twice daily (about 1.2 times the recommended human dose based on the body surface area).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies with PREPOPIK have been performed in pregnant rats at oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day (about 1.2 times the recommended human dose based on the body surface area), and did not reveal any evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to PREPOPIK. The reproduction study in rabbits was not adequate, as treatment-related mortalities were observed at all doses. A pre and postnatal development study in rats showed no evidence of any adverse effect on pre and postnatal development at oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg twice daily (about 1.2 times the recommended human dose based on the body surface area). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, PREPOPIK should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when PREPOPIK is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and effectiveness of PREPOPIK in pediatric patients has not been established.
In controlled clinical trials of PREPOPIK, 215 of 1201 (18%) patients were 65 years of age or older. The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar among patients ≥ 65 years of age (73%) and patients < 65 years of age (71%). Among all patients ≥ 65 years of age, the proportion of patients with successful colon cleansing was greater in the PREPOPIK group (81.1%) than in the comparator group (70.9%).
Patients with impaired renal function or patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function (such as diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) may be at increased risk for further renal injury. Advise these patients of the importance of adequate hydration before during and after the use of PREPOPIK. Consider performing baseline and post-colonoscopy laboratory tests (electrolytes, creatinine, and BUN) in these patients. In patients with severely reduced renal function (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min), accumulation of magnesium in plasma may occur. The signs and symptoms of hypermagnesemia may include, but are not limited to, diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes, somnolence, hypocalcemia, hypotension, bradycardia, muscle, respiratory paralysis, complete heart block, and cardiac arrest.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/27/2012
Additional Prepopik Information
- Prepopik Drug Interactions Center: sod picosulf-mag ox-citric ac oral
- Prepopik Side Effects Center
- Prepopik FDA Approved Prescribing Information including Dosage
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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