"Dec. 20, 2010 -- New research suggests that one out of every 200 patients being treated with gastric acid-suppressive drugs for heartburn and other conditions may develop pneumonia.
Researchers led by Chun-Sick Eom, MD, MPH, from Seoul "...
Symptomatic response to therapy with lansoprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including PREVACID. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue PREVACID if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) Deficiency
Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed.
Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea
Published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy like PREVACID may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
CDAD has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with PREVACID, refer to WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS sections of those package inserts.
Several published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Concomitant Use Of PREVACID With Methotrexate
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]
Patient Counseling Information
[See FDA-Approved Medication Guide and Patient Instructions for Use]
Patient should be informed of the following:
- Advise patients to immediately report and seek care for diarrhea that does not improve. This may be a sign of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Advise patients to immediately report and seek care for any cardiovascular or neurological symptoms including palpitations, dizziness, seizures, and tetany as these may be signs of hypomagnesemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Information For Patients
PREVACID is available as a capsule and an orally disintegrating tablet, and is available in 15 mg and 30 mg strengths. Directions for use specific to the route and available methods of administration for each of these dosage forms is presented below [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
- PREVACID should be taken before eating.
- PREVACID products SHOULD NOT BE CRUSHED OR CHEWED.
- Phenylketonurics: Contains Phenylalanine 2.5 mg per 15 mg Tablet and 5.1 mg per 30 mg Tablet.
1. PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules – Oral Administration
- PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules should be swallowed whole.
- Alternatively, for patients who have difficulty
swallowing capsules, PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules can be opened and
administered as follows:
- Open capsule.
- Sprinkle intact granules on one tablespoon of either applesauce, ENSURE pudding, cottage cheese, yogurt or strained pears.
- Swallow immediately.
- PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules may also be emptied
into a small volume of either apple juice, orange juice or tomato juice and administered
- Open capsule.
- Sprinkle intact granules into a small volume of either apple juice, orange juice or tomato juice (60 mL – approximately 2 ounces).
- Mix briefly.
- Swallow immediately.
- To ensure complete delivery of the dose, the glass should be rinsed with two or more volumes of juice and the contents swallowed immediately.
PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules – Nasogastric Tube ( ≥ 16 French) Administration
- For patients who have a nasogastric tube in place,
PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules can be administered as follows:
- Open capsule.
- Mix intact granules into 40 mL of apple juice. DO NOT USE OTHER LIQUIDS.
- Inject through the nasogastric tube into the stomach.
- Flush with additional apple juice to clear the tube.
USE IN OTHER FOODS AND LIQUIDS HAS NOT BEEN STUDIED CLINICALLY AND IS THEREFORE NOT RECOMMENDED.
2. PREVACID SoluTab Delayed-Release Orally Disintegrating Tablets
- PREVACID SoluTab should not be broken or cut.
- PREVACID SoluTab should not be chewed.
- Place the tablet on the tongue and allow it to disintegrate, with or without water, until the particles can be swallowed.
- The tablet typically disintegrates in less than 1 minute.
- Alternatively, for children or other patients who have difficulty swallowing tablets, PREVACID SoluTab can be delivered in two different ways.
PREVACID SoluTab – Oral Syringe
For administration via oral syringe, PREVACID SoluTab can be administered as follows:
- Place a 15 mg tablet in oral syringe and draw up 4 mL of water, or place a 30 mg tablet in oral syringe and draw up 10 mL of water.
- Shake gently to allow for a quick dispersal.
- After the tablet has dispersed, administer the contents within 15 minutes.
- Refill the syringe with approximately 2 mL (5 mL for the 30 mg tablet) of water, shake gently, and administer any remaining contents.
PREVACID SoluTab – Nasogastric Tube ( ≥ 8 French) Administration
For administration via a nasogastric tube, PREVACID SoluTab can be administered as follows:
- Place a 15 mg tablet in a syringe and draw up 4 mL of water, or place a 30 mg tablet in a syringe and draw up 10 mL of water.
- Shake gently to allow for a quick dispersal.
- After the tablet has dispersed, inject through the nasogastric tube into the stomach within 15 minutes.
- Refill the syringe with approximately 5 mL of water, shake gently, and flush the nasogastric tube.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In two 24-month carcinogenicity studies, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with oral lansoprazole doses of 5 to 150 mg/kg/day, about 1 to 40 times the exposure on a body surface (mg/m²) basis of a 50 kg person of average height [1.46 m² body surface area (BSA)] given the recommended human dose of 30 mg/day. Lansoprazole produced dose-related gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia and ECL cell carcinoids in both male and female rats. It also increased the incidence of intestinal metaplasia of the gastric epithelium in both sexes. In male rats, lansoprazole produced a dose-related increase of testicular interstitial cell adenomas. The incidence of these adenomas in rats receiving doses of 15 to 150 mg/kg/day (4 to 40 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) exceeded the low background incidence (range = 1.4 to 10%) for this strain of rat.
In a 24-month carcinogenicity study, CD-1 mice were treated with oral lansoprazole doses of 15 to 600 mg/kg/day, 2 to 80 times the recommended human dose based on BSA. Lansoprazole produced a dose-related increased incidence of gastric ECL cell hyperplasia. It also produced an increased incidence of liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma plus carcinoma). The tumor incidences in male mice treated with 300 and 600 mg/kg/day (40 to 80 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) and female mice treated with 150 to 600 mg/kg/day (20 to 80 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) exceeded the ranges of background incidences in historical controls for this strain of mice. Lansoprazole treatment produced adenoma of rete testis in male mice receiving 75 to 600 mg/kg/day (10 to 80 times the recommended human dose based on BSA).
A 26-week p53 (+/-) transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study was not positive.
Lansoprazole was positive in the Ames test and the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay. Lansoprazole was not genotoxic in the ex vivo rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test, the in vivo mouse micronucleus test, or the rat bone marrow cell chromosomal aberration test.
Lansoprazole at oral doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (40 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance of male and female rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rats at oral doses up to 40 times the recommended human dose and in pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 16 times the recommended human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to lansoprazole. There are, however, no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
See full prescribing information for clarithromycin before using in pregnant women.
Lansoprazole or its metabolites are excreted in the milk of rats. It is not known whether lansoprazole is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from lansoprazole, and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for lansoprazole in rat carcinogenicity studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue lansoprazole, taking into account the importance of lansoprazole to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness of PREVACID have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age for short-term treatment of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis, however, PREVACID was not effective in patients with symptomatic GERD 1 month to less than 1 year of age in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled study.
Neonate To Less Than 1 Year Of Age
The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged less than 28 days and 1 to 11 months. Compared to healthy adults receiving 30 mg, neonates had higher exposure (mean weight-based normalized AUC values 2.04- and 1.88-fold higher at doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day and 1 mg/kg/day, respectively). Infants aged ≤ 10 weeks had clearance and exposure values that were similar to neonates. Infants aged greater than 10 weeks who received 1 mg/kg/day had mean AUC values that were similar to adults who received a 30 mg dose.
Lansoprazole was not found to be effective in a U.S. and Polish 4 week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 162 patients between one month and less than 12 months of age with symptomatic GERD based on a medical history of crying/fussing/irritability associated with feedings who had not responded to conservative GERD management (i.e., non-pharmacologic intervention) for 7 to 14 days. Patients received lansoprazole as a suspension daily (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/day in infants ≤ 10 weeks of age or 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg/day in infants greater than 10 weeks or placebo) for up to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment.
The primary efficacy endpoint was assessed by greater than 50% reduction from baseline in either the percent of feedings with a crying/fussing/irritability episode or the duration (minutes) of a crying/fussing/irritability episode within one hour after feeding.
There was no difference in the percentage of responders between the lansoprazole pediatric suspension group and placebo group (54% in both groups).
There were no adverse events reported in pediatric clinical studies (1 month to less than 12 months of age) that were not previously observed in adults.
Based on the results of the Phase 3 efficacy study, lansoprazole was not shown to be effective. Therefore, these results do not support the use of lansoprazole in treating symptomatic GERD in infants.
One To 11 Years Of Age
In an uncontrolled, open-label, U.S. multicenter study, 66 pediatric patients (1 to 11 years of age) with GERD were assigned, based on body weight, to receive an initial dose of either PREVACID 15 mg daily if ≤ 30 kg or PREVACID 30 mg daily if greater than 30 kg administered for 8 to 12 weeks. The PREVACID dose was increased (up to 30 mg twice daily) in 24 of 66 pediatric patients after 2 or more weeks of treatment if they remained symptomatic. At baseline 85% of patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interview), 58% had non-erosive GERD and 42% had erosive esophagitis (assessed by endoscopy).
After 8 to 12 weeks of PREVACID treatment, the intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated an approximate 50% reduction in frequency and severity of GERD symptoms.
Twenty-one of 27 erosive esophagitis patients were healed at 8 weeks and 100% of patients were healed at 12 weeks by endoscopy (Table 2).
Table 2: GERD Symptom Improvement and Erosive
Esophagitis Healing Rates in Pediatric Patients Age 1 to 11
|GERD||Final Visit* % (n/N)|
|Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms†||76% (47/62*)|
|Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms†||81% (22/27)|
|Healing Rate||100% (27/27)|
|* At Week 8 or Week 12
† Symptoms assessed by patients diary kept by caregiver.
‡No data were available for 4 pediatric patients.
In a study of 66 pediatric patients in the age group 1 year to 11 years old after treatment with PREVACID given orally in doses of 15 mg daily to 30 mg twice daily, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies. Median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 89% from 51 pg/mL at baseline to 97 pg/mL [interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile) of 71 to 130 pg/mL] at the final visit.
The pediatric safety of PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules has been assessed in 66 pediatric patients aged 1 to 11 years of age. Of the 66 patients with GERD 85% (56/66) took PREVACID for 8 weeks and 15% (10/66) took it for 12 weeks.
The most frequently reported (2 or more patients) treatment-related adverse reactions in patients 1 to 11 years of age (N=66) were constipation (5%) and headache (3%).
Twelve To 17 Years Of Age
In an uncontrolled, open-label, U.S. multicenter study, 87 adolescent patients (12 to 17 years of age) with symptomatic GERD were treated with PREVACID for 8 to 12 weeks. Baseline upper endoscopies classified these patients into two groups: 64 (74%) nonerosive GERD and 23 (26%) erosive esophagitis (EE). The nonerosive GERD patients received PREVACID 15 mg daily for 8 weeks and the EE patients received PREVACID 30 mg daily for 8 to 12 weeks. At baseline, 89% of these patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interviews). During 8 weeks of PREVACID treatment, adolescent patients experienced a 63% reduction in frequency and a 69% reduction in severity of GERD symptoms based on diary results.
Twenty-one of 22 (95.5%) adolescent erosive esophagitis patients were healed after 8 weeks of PREVACID treatment. One patient remained unhealed after 12 weeks of treatment (Table 3).
Table 3: GERD Symptom Improvement and Erosive
Esophagitis Healing Rates in Pediatric Patients Age 12 to 17
|GERD||Final Visit % (n/N)|
|Symptomatic GERD (All Patients)|
|Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms*||73.2% (60/82)†|
|Nonerosive GERD *|
|Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms*||71.2% (42/59)†|
|Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms*||78.3% (18/23)|
|Healing Rate‡||95.5% (21/22)*|
|*Symptoms assessed by patient diary (parents/caregivers
†No data available for 5 patients.
‡Data from one healed patient was excluded from this analysis due to timing of final endoscopy.
In these 87 adolescent patients, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies, median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 42% from 45 pg/mL at baseline to 64 pg/mL [interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile) of 44 to 88 pg/mL] at the final visit. (Normal serum gastrin levels are 25 to 111 pg/mL.)
The safety of PREVACID Delayed-Release Capsules has been assessed in these 87 adolescent patients. Of the 87 adolescent patients with GERD, 6% (5/87) took PREVACID for less than 6 weeks, 93% (81/87) for 6 to 10 weeks, and 1% (1/87) for greater than 10 weeks. The most frequently reported (at least 3%) treatment-related adverse reactions in these patients were headache (7%), abdominal pain (5%), nausea (3%) and dizziness (3%). Treatment-related dizziness, reported in this package insert as occurring in less than 1% of adult patients, was reported in this study by 3 adolescent patients with nonerosive GERD, who had dizziness concurrently with other reactions (such as migraine, dyspnea, and vomiting).
No dosage adjustment of PREVACID is necessary in geriatric patients. The incidence rates of PREVACID-associated adverse reactions and laboratory test abnormalities are similar to those seen in younger patients [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dosage adjustment of PREVACID is necessary in patients with renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole in patients with various degrees of renal impairment were not substantially different compared to those in subjects with normal renal function [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
In patients with various degrees of chronic hepatic impairment, an increase in the mean AUC of up to 500% was observed at steady state compared to healthy subjects. Consider dose reduction in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Over 4,000 women were treated with PREVACID. Ulcer healing rates in females were similar to those in males. The incidence rates of adverse reactions in females were similar to those seen in males [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The pooled mean pharmacokinetic parameters of PREVACID from twelve U.S. Phase 1 studies (N=513) were compared to the mean pharmacokinetic parameters from two Asian studies (N=20). The mean AUCs of PREVACID in Asian subjects were approximately twice those seen in pooled U.S. data; however, the inter-individual variability was high. The Cmax values were comparable.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/12/2015
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