"Troy Brown, RN
Medscape Medical News
Clostridium difficile caused nearly half a million infections and was associated with about 29,000 deaths in 2011, according to new data released today by the Centers for Disease Control "...
In case of an overdose, patients should contact a physician, poison control center, or emergency room. There is neither a pharmacologic basis nor data suggesting an increased toxicity of the combination compared to individual components.
In case of amoxicillin overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures as needed. If the overdosage is very recent and there is no contraindication, an attempt at emesis or other means of removal of drug from the stomach may be performed. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison-control center suggested that overdosages of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin are not associated with significant clinical symptoms and do not require gastric emptying.2
Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin crystalluria. Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of amoxicillin. Amoxicillin can be removed from circulation by hemodialysis.
Overdosage of clarithromycin can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea.
Adverse reactions accompanying overdosage should be treated by the prompt elimination of unabsorbed drug and supportive measures. As with other macrolides, clarithromycin serum concentrations are not expected to be appreciably affected by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
PREVACID is not removed from the circulation by hemodialysis. In one reported overdose, a patient consumed 600 mg of PREVACID with no adverse reaction. Oral PREVACID doses up to 5000 mg/kg in rats (approximately 650 times the recommended human dose of 60 mg/day based on BSA) and in mice (about 338 times the recommended human dose of 60 mg/day based on BSA) did not produce deaths or any clinical signs.
PREVPAC is contraindicated in patients with known severe hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation of PREVACID.
A history of severe hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins) is a contraindication.
Concomitant administration of clarithromycin, a component of PREVPAC, and any of the following drugs is contraindicated: cisapride, pimozide, astemizole, terfenadine, ergotamine or dihydroergotamine (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS). There have been post-marketing reports of drug interactions when clarithromycin and/or erythromycin are coadministered with cisapride, pimozide, astemizole, or terfenadine resulting in cardiac arrhythmias (QT prolongation, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and torsades de pointes) most likely due to inhibition of metabolism of these drugs by erythromycin and clarithromycin. Fatalities have been reported.
Concomitant administration of clarithromycin and colchicine is contraindicated in patients with renal or hepatic impairment.
Clarithromycin should not be used concomitantly with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) that are extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 (lovastatin or simvastatin), due to the increase risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis (see WARNINGS).
2. Swanson Biearman B, Dean BS, Lopez G, Krenzelok EP. The effects of penicillin and cephalosporin ingestions in children less than six years of age. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1988; 30:66-67.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/14/2014
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