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Human experience of acute overdose with PREZISTA/ritonavir is limited. Single doses up to 3200 mg of the oral solution of darunavir alone and up to 1600 mg of the tablet formulation of darunavir in combination with ritonavir have been administered to healthy volunteers without untoward symptomatic effects.
No specific antidote is available for overdose with PREZISTA. Treatment of overdose with PREZISTA consists of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed active substance is to be achieved by emesis. Administration of activated charcoal may also be used to aid in removal of unabsorbed active substance. Since PREZISTA is highly protein bound, dialysis is unlikely to be beneficial in significant removal of the active substance.
Co-administration of PREZISTA/ritonavir is contraindicated with drugs that are highly dependent on CYP3A for clearance and for which elevated plasma concentrations are associated with serious and/or life-threatening events (narrow therapeutic index). These drugs and other contraindicated drugs (which may lead to reduced efficacy of darunavir) are listed in Table 6 [also see DRUG INTERACTIONS, Table 11].
Table 6: Drugs That Are Contraindicated With
|Drug Class||Drugs Within Class That Are Contraindicated With PREZISTA/ritonavir||Clinical Comment|
|Alpha 1adrenoreceptor antagonist||Alfuzosin||Potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as hypotension.|
|Ergot Derivative||Dihydroergotamine, Ergotamine, Methylergonovine||Potential for serious and/or life-threatening events such as acute ergot toxicity characterized by peripheral vasospasm and ischemia of the extremities and other tissues.|
|GI Motility Agent||Cisapride||Potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as cardiac arrhythmias.|
|Neuroleptic||Pimozide||Potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as cardiac arrhythmias.|
|Sedative/hypnotic||Orally administered Midazolam, Triazolam||Triazolam and orally administered midazolam are extensively metabolized by CYP3A. Co-administration of triazolam or orally administered midazolam with PREZISTA/ritonavir may cause large increases in the concentrations of these benzodiazepines. Potential for serious and/or life-threatening events such as prolonged or increased sedation or respiratory depression|
|Herbal Product||St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)||Patients taking PREZISTA/ritonavir should not use products containing St. John’s wort because co-administration may result in reduced plasma concentrations of darunavir. This may result in loss of therapeutic effect and development of resistance.|
|HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor||Lovastatin, Simvastatin||Potential for serious reactions such as myopathy including rhabdomyolysis.
For dosing recommendation regarding atorvastatin and pravastatin, see Table 11: Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions: Alterations in Dose or Regimen May Be Recommended Based on Drug Interaction Studies or Predicted Interaction.
|Antimycobacterial||Rifampin||Rifampin is a potent inducer of CYP450 metabolism. PREZISTA/ritonavir should not be used in combination with rifampin, as this may cause significant decreases in darunavir plasma concentrations. This may result in loss of therapeutic effect to PREZISTA.|
|PDE-5 inhibitor||Sildenafil for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension||A safe and effective dose for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension has not been established with PREZISTA/ritonavir. There is an increased potential for sildenafil-associated adverse events (which include visual disturbances, hypotension, prolonged erection, and syncope).|
Due to the need for co-administration of PREZISTA with ritonavir, please refer to ritonavir prescribing information for a description of ritonavir contraindications.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/18/2014
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