"Entry Inhibitors (including Fusion Inhibitors) and CCR5 Co-receptor Antagonist
Entry inhibitors block HIV entry into CD4+ cells.
The only drug in this class "...
PREZISTA must be co-administered with ritonavir and food to achieve the desired antiviral effect. Failure to administer PREZISTA with ritonavir and food may result in a loss of efficacy of darunavir.
Please refer to ritonavir prescribing information for additional information on precautionary measures.
Drug-induced hepatitis (e.g., acute hepatitis, cytolytic hepatitis) has been reported with PREZISTA/ritonavir. During the clinical development program (N=3063), hepatitis was reported in 0.5% of patients receiving combination therapy with PREZISTA/ritonavir. Patients with pre-existing liver dysfunction, including chronic active hepatitis B or C, have an increased risk for liver function abnormalities including severe hepatic adverse events.
Post-marketing cases of liver injury, including some fatalities, have been reported. These have generally occurred in patients with advanced HIV-1 disease taking multiple concomitant medications, having co-morbidities including hepatitis B or C co-infection, and/or developing immune reconstitution syndrome. A causal relationship with PREZISTA/ritonavir therapy has not been established.
Appropriate laboratory testing should be conducted prior to initiating therapy with PREZISTA/ritonavir and patients should be monitored during treatment. Increased AST/ALT monitoring should be considered in patients with underlying chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or in patients who have pre-treatment elevations of transaminases, especially during the first several months of PREZISTA/ritonavir treatment.
Evidence of new or worsening liver dysfunction (including clinically significant elevation of liver enzymes and/or symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, jaundice, dark urine, liver tenderness, hepatomegaly) in patients on PREZISTA/ritonavir should prompt consideration of interruption or discontinuation of treatment.
Severe Skin Reactions
During the clinical development program (n=3063), severe skin reactions, accompanied by fever and/or elevations of transaminases in some cases, have been reported in 0.4% of subjects. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome was rarely (less than 0.1%) reported during the clinical development program. During post-marketing experience toxic epidermal necrolysis and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis have been reported. Discontinue PREZISTA/ritonavir immediately if signs or symptoms of severe skin reactions develop. These can include but are not limited to severe rash or rash accompanied with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, conjunctivitis, hepatitis and/or eosinophilia.
Rash (all grades, regardless of causality) occurred in 10.3% of subjects treated with PREZISTA/ritonavir [also see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Rash was mostly mild-to-moderate, often occurring within the first four weeks of treatment and resolving with continued dosing. The discontinuation rate due to rash in subjects using PREZISTA/ritonavir was 0.5%.
Rash occurred more commonly in treatment-experienced subjects receiving regimens containing PREZISTA/ritonavir + raltegravir compared to subjects receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir without raltegravir or raltegravir without PREZISTA/ritonavir. However, rash that was considered drug related occurred at similar rates for all three groups. These rashes were mild to moderate in severity and did not limit therapy; there were no discontinuations due to rash.
Darunavir contains a sulfonamide moiety. PREZISTA should be used with caution in patients with a known sulfonamide allergy. In clinical studies with PREZISTA/ritonavir, the incidence and severity of rash were similar in subjects with or without a history of sulfonamide allergy.
See Table 6 for a listing of drugs that are contraindicated for use with PREZISTA/ritonavir due to potentially life-threatening adverse events, significant drug-drug interactions, or loss of therapeutic effect to PREZISTA [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Please refer to Table 11 for established and other potentially significant drug-drug interactions [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Diabetes Mellitus / Hyperglycemia
New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of pre-existing diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia have been reported during postmarketing surveillance in HIV-infected patients receiving protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Some patients required either initiation or dose adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents for treatment of these events. In some cases, diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred. In those patients who discontinued PI therapy, hyperglycemia persisted in some cases. Because these events have been reported voluntarily during clinical practice, estimates of frequency cannot be made and causal relationships between PI therapy and these events have not been established.
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat, including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including PREZISTA. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune systems respond may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [PCP], or tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution; however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of antiretroviral treatment.
There have been reports of increased bleeding, including spontaneous skin hematomas and hemarthrosis in patients with hemophilia type A and B treated with PIs. In some patients, additional factor VIII was given. In more than half of the reported cases, treatment with PIs was continued or reintroduced if treatment had been discontinued. A causal relationship between PI therapy and these episodes has not been established.
Because the potential for HIV cross-resistance among PIs has not been fully explored in PREZISTA/ritonavir treated patients, the effect therapy with PREZISTA will have on the activity of subsequently administered PIs is unknown [see Microbiology].
Do not administer PREZISTA/ritonavir in pediatric patients below 3 years of age in view of toxicity and mortality observed in juvenile rats dosed with darunavir (from 20 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg) up to days 23 to 26 of age [see Use In Specific Populations, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and Nonclinical Toxicology].
Patient Counseling Information
[See FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information and Instruction for Use)]
A statement to patients and healthcare providers is included on the product's bottle label: ALERT: Find out about medicines that should NOT be taken with PREZISTA. A Patient Package Insert for PREZISTA is available for patient information.
Information About Therapy with PREZISTA
PREZISTA is not a cure for HIV-1 infection and patients may continue to experience illnesses associated with HIV-1 infection, including opportunistic infections. Patients should remain under the care of a physician when using PREZISTA.
Patients should be advised to avoid doing things that can spread HIV-1 infection to others.
- Do not share needles or other injection equipment.
- Do not share personal items that can have blood or body fluids on them, like toothbrushes and razor blades.
- Do not have any kind of sex without protection. Always practice safe sex by using a latex or polyurethane condom to lower the chance of sexual contact with semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
- Do not breastfeed. We do not know if PREZISTA can be passed to the baby through breast milk and whether it could harm the baby. Also, mothers with HIV-1 should not breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in the breast milk.
Instructions for Use
Patients should be advised to take PREZISTA and ritonavir (NORVIR®) with food every day as prescribed. Patients should be instructed to swallow whole tablets with a drink such as water or milk. PREZISTA must always be used with ritonavir (NORVIR®) in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. Patients should not alter the dose of either PREZISTA or ritonavir (NORVIR®), discontinue ritonavir (NORVIR®), or discontinue therapy with PREZISTA without consulting their physician.
Patients Taking PREZISTA Once Daily
If a patient misses a dose of PREZISTA or ritonavir (NORVIR®) by more than 12 hours, the patient should be told to wait and then take the next dose of PREZISTA and ritonavir (NORVIR®) at the regularly scheduled time. If the patient misses a dose of PREZISTA or ritonavir (NORVIR®) by less than 12 hours, the patient should be told to take PREZISTA and ritonavir (NORVIR®) immediately, and then take the next dose of PREZISTA and ritonavir (NORVIR®) at the regularly scheduled time. If a dose of PREZISTA or ritonavir (NORVIR®) is skipped, the patient should not double the next dose. Inform the patient that he or she should not take more or less than the prescribed dose of PREZISTA or ritonavir (NORVIR®).
Patients Taking PREZISTA Twice Daily
If a patient misses a dose of PREZISTA or ritonavir (NORVIR®) by more than 6 hours, the patient should be told to wait and then take the next dose of PREZISTA and ritonavir (NORVIR®) at the regularly scheduled time. If the patient misses a dose of PREZISTA or ritonavir (NORVIR®) by less than 6 hours, the patient should be told to take PREZISTA and ritonavir (NORVIR®) immediately, and then take the next dose of PREZISTA and ritonavir (NORVIR®) at the regularly scheduled time. If a dose of PREZISTA or ritonavir (NORVIR®) is skipped, the patient should not double the next dose. Inform the patient that he or she should not take more or less than the prescribed dose of PREZISTA or ritonavir (NORVIR®).
Patients should be informed that Drug-induced hepatitis (e.g., acute hepatitis, cytolytic hepatitis) has been reported with PREZISTA co-administered with 100 mg of ritonavir. Monitor liver function before and during therapy, especially in patients with underlying chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or in patients who have pre-treatment elevations of transaminases. Post-marketing cases of liver injury, including some fatalities, have been reported. Patients should be advised about the signs and symptoms of liver problems. These may include jaundice of the skin or eyes, dark (tea colored) urine, pale colored stools, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, or pain, aching or sensitivity in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
Severe Skin Reactions
Patients should be informed that skin reactions ranging from mild to severe, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported with PREZISTA co-administered with 100 mg of ritonavir. Patients should be advised to discontinue PREZISTA/ritonavir immediately if signs or symptoms of severe skin reactions develop. These can include but are not limited to severe rash or rash accompanied with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, conjunctivitis, hepatitis and/or eosinophilia.
PREZISTA/ritonavir may interact with many drugs; therefore, patients should be advised to report to their healthcare provider the use of any other prescription or nonprescription medication or herbal products, including St. John's wort.
Patients receiving estrogen-based contraceptives should be instructed to use alternate contraceptive measures during therapy with PREZISTA/ritonavir because hormonal levels may decrease.
Patients should be informed that redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, including PREZISTA/ritonavir, and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known at this time.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis
Darunavir was evaluated for carcinogenic potential by oral gavage administration to mice and rats up to 104 weeks. Daily doses of 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg were administered to mice and doses of 50, 150 and 500 mg/kg was administered to rats. A dose-related increase in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were observed in males and females of both species as well as an increase in thyroid follicular cell adenomas in male rats. The observed hepatocellular findings in rodents are considered to be of limited relevance to humans. Repeated administration of darunavir to rats caused hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and increased thyroid hormone elimination, which predispose rats, but not humans, to thyroid neoplasms. At the highest tested doses, the systemic exposures to darunavir (based on AUC) were between 0.4-and 0.7-fold (mice) and 0.7-and 1-fold (rats), relative to those observed in humans at the recommended therapeutic doses (600/100 mg twice daily or 800/100 mg once daily).
Darunavir was not mutagenic or genotoxic in a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays including bacterial reserve mutation (Ames), chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes and in vivo micronucleus test in mice.
Impairment of Fertility
No effects on fertility or early embryonic development were observed with darunavir in rats and darunavir has shown no teratogenic potential in mice or rats (in the presence or absence of ritonavir), and rabbits.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
PREZISTA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk.
No adequate and well-controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women. Reproduction studies conducted with darunavir showed no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity in mice and rats in the presence or absence of ritonavir as well as in rabbits with darunavir alone. In these studies, darunavir exposures (based on AUC) were higher in rats (3-fold), whereas in mice and rabbits, exposures were lower (less than 1-fold) compared to those obtained in humans at the recommended clinical dose of darunavir boosted with ritonavir.
In the rat pre-and postnatal development study, a reduction in pup body weight gain was observed with darunavir alone or in combination with ritonavir during lactation. This was due to exposure of pups to drug substances via the milk. Sexual development, fertility and mating performance of offspring were not affected by maternal treatment with darunavir alone or in combination with ritonavir. The maximal plasma exposures achieved in rats were approximately 50% of those obtained in humans at the recommended clinical dose boosted with ritonavir.
In the juvenile toxicity study where rats were directly dosed with darunavir, deaths occurred from post-natal day 5 through 11 at plasma exposure levels ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 of the human exposure levels. In a 4-week rat toxicology study, when dosing was initiated on post-natal day 23 (the human equivalent of 2 to 3 years of age), no deaths were observed with a plasma exposure (in combination with ritonavir) of 0.1 of the human plasma exposure levels.
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to PREZISTA, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-258-4263.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV. Although it is not known whether darunavir is secreted in human milk, darunavir is secreted into the milk of lactating rats. Because of both the potential for HIV transmission and the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, mothers should be instructed not to breastfeed if they are receiving PREZISTA.
Do not administer PREZISTA/ritonavir in pediatric patients below 3 years of age because of toxicity and mortality observed in juvenile rats dosed with darunavir (from 20 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg) up to days 23 to 26 of age [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use In Specific Populations, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Nonclinical Toxicology].
The safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and virologic and immunologic responses of PREZISTA/ritonavir were evaluated in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighting at least 10 kg. These subjects were evaluated in clinical trials TMC114-C212 (80 subjects, 6 to less than 18 years of age) and TMC114-228 (21 subjects, 3 to less than 6 years of age) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies]. Frequency, type, and severity of adverse drug reactions in pediatric subjects were comparable to those observed in adults [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for twice-daily dosing recommendations for pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 10 kg.
In clinical trial TMC114-C230, the safety, pharmacokinetic profile and virologic and immunologic responses of PREZISTA/ritonavir administered once daily were evaluated in treatment-na´ve HIV-1 infected pediatric subjects 12 to less than 18 years of age (12 subjects) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies]. Frequency, type, and severity of adverse drug reactions in pediatric subjects were comparable to those observed in adults [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Once daily dosing recommendations for pediatric patients 3 to less than 12 years of age were derived using population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation. Although a PREZISTA/ritonavir once daily dosing pediatric trial was not conducted in children less than 12 years of age, there is sufficient clinical safety data to support the predicted PREZISTA exposures for the dosing recommendations in this age group [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for once-daily dosing recommendations for pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 10 kg.
Clinical studies of PREZISTA did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration and monitoring of PREZISTA in elderly patients, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
No dose adjustment of PREZISTA/ritonavir is necessary for patients with either mild or moderate hepatic impairment. No pharmacokinetic or safety data are available regarding the use of PREZISTA/ritonavir in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, PREZISTA/ritonavir is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the pharmacokinetics of darunavir were not significantly affected in HIV-infected subjects with moderate renal impairment (CrCL between 30-60 mL/min, n=20). No pharmacokinetic data are available in HIV-1-infected patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease; however, because the renal clearance of darunavir is limited, a decrease in total body clearance is not expected in patients with renal impairment. As darunavir and ritonavir are highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that they will be significantly removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/13/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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