"The National Institutes of Health has launched a clinical trial to assess the effects of aspirin and cholesterol-lowering drugs, or statins, on preventing cardiovascular disease in people with long-term HIV infections. This group, which includ"...
Importance Of Co-administration With Ritonavir
PREZISTA must be co-administered with ritonavir and food to achieve the desired antiviral effect. Failure to administer PREZISTA with ritonavir and food may result in a loss of efficacy of darunavir.
Please refer to ritonavir prescribing information for additional information on precautionary measures.
Drug-induced hepatitis (e.g., acute hepatitis, cytolytic hepatitis) has been reported with PREZISTA/ritonavir. During the clinical development program (N=3063), hepatitis was reported in 0.5% of patients receiving combination therapy with PREZISTA/ritonavir. Patients with pre-existing liver dysfunction, including chronic active hepatitis B or C, have an increased risk for liver function abnormalities including severe hepatic adverse events.
Post-marketing cases of liver injury, including some fatalities, have been reported. These have generally occurred in patients with advanced HIV-1 disease taking multiple concomitant medications, having co-morbidities including hepatitis B or C co-infection, and/or developing immune reconstitution syndrome. A causal relationship with PREZISTA/ritonavir therapy has not been established.
Appropriate laboratory testing should be conducted prior to initiating therapy with PREZISTA/ritonavir and patients should be monitored during treatment. Increased AST/ALT monitoring should be considered in patients with underlying chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or in patients who have pre-treatment elevations of transaminases, especially during the first several months of PREZISTA/ritonavir treatment.
Evidence of new or worsening liver dysfunction (including clinically significant elevation of liver enzymes and/or symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, jaundice, dark urine, liver tenderness, hepatomegaly) in patients on PREZISTA/ritonavir should prompt consideration of interruption or discontinuation of treatment.
Severe Skin Reactions
During the clinical development program (n=3063), severe skin reactions, accompanied by fever and/or elevations of transaminases in some cases, have been reported in 0.4% of subjects. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome was rarely (less than 0.1%) reported during the clinical development program. During post-marketing experience toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis have been reported. Discontinue PREZISTA/ritonavir immediately if signs or symptoms of severe skin reactions develop. These can include but are not limited to severe rash or rash accompanied with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, conjunctivitis, hepatitis and/or eosinophilia.
Rash (all grades, regardless of causality) occurred in 10.3% of subjects treated with PREZISTA/ritonavir [also see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Rash was mostly mild-to-moderate, often occurring within the first four weeks of treatment and resolving with continued dosing. The discontinuation rate due to rash in subjects using PREZISTA/ritonavir was 0.5%.
Rash occurred more commonly in treatment-experienced subjects receiving regimens containing PREZISTA/ritonavir + raltegravir compared to subjects receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir without raltegravir or raltegravir without PREZISTA/ritonavir. However, rash that was considered drug related occurred at similar rates for all three groups. These rashes were mild to moderate in severity and did not limit therapy; there were no discontinuations due to rash.
Darunavir contains a sulfonamide moiety. PREZISTA should be used with caution in patients with a known sulfonamide allergy. In clinical studies with PREZISTA/ritonavir, the incidence and severity of rash were similar in subjects with or without a history of sulfonamide allergy.
Risk Of Serious Adverse Reactions Due To Drug Interactions
Initiation of PREZISTA/ritonavir, a CYP3A inhibitor, in patients receiving medications metabolized by CYP3A or initiation of medications metabolized by CYP3A in patients already receiving PREZISTA/ritonavir, may increase plasma concentrations of medications metabolized by CYP3A. Initiation of medications that inhibit or induce CYP3A may increase or decrease concentrations of PREZISTA/ritonavir, respectively. These interactions may lead to:
- Clinically significant adverse reactions, potentially leading to severe, life threatening, or fatal events from greater exposures of concomitant medications.
- Clinically significant adverse reactions from greater exposures of PREZISTA/ritonavir.
- Loss of therapeutic effect of PREZISTA/ritonavir and possible development of resistance.
See Table 11 for steps to prevent or manage these possible and known significant drug interactions, including dosing recommendations [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Consider the potential for drug interactions prior to and during PREZISTA/ritonavir therapy; review concomitant medications during PREZISTA/ritonavir therapy; and monitor for the adverse reactions associated with the concomitant drugs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of pre-existing diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia have been reported during postmarketing surveillance in HIV-infected patients receiving protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Some patients required either initiation or dose adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents for treatment of these events. In some cases, diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred. In those patients who discontinued PI therapy, hyperglycemia persisted in some cases. Because these events have been reported voluntarily during clinical practice, estimates of frequency cannot be made and causal relationships between PI therapy and these events have not been established.
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat, including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including PREZISTA. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune systems respond may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [PCP], or tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution; however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of antiretroviral treatment.
There have been reports of increased bleeding, including spontaneous skin hematomas and hemarthrosis in patients with hemophilia type A and B treated with PIs. In some patients, additional factor VIII was given. In more than half of the reported cases, treatment with PIs was continued or reintroduced if treatment had been discontinued. A causal relationship between PI therapy and these episodes has not been established.
Not Recommended In Pediatric Patients Below 3 Years Of Age
PREZISTA/ritonavir in pediatric patients below 3 years of age is not recommended in view of toxicity and mortality observed in juvenile rats dosed with darunavir (from 20 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg) up to days 23 to 26 of age [see Use in Specific Populations, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION and Instruction for Use)
Instructions For Use
Advise patients to take PREZISTA and ritonavir with food every day on a regular dosing schedule, as missed doses can result in development of resistance. PREZISTA must always be used with ritonavir in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. Advise patients not to alter the dose of either PREZISTA or ritonavir, discontinue ritonavir, or discontinue therapy with PREZISTA without consulting their physician [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Inform patients that drug-induced hepatitis (e.g., acute hepatitis, cytolytic hepatitis) has been reported with PREZISTA co-administered with 100 mg of ritonavir. Advise patients about the signs and symptoms of liver problems [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Severe Skin Reactions
Inform patients that skin reactions ranging from mild to severe, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported with PREZISTA co-administered with 100 mg of ritonavir. Advise patients to discontinue PREZISTA/ritonavir immediately if signs or symptoms of severe skin reactions develop. These can include but are not limited to severe rash or rash accompanied with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, conjunctivitis, hepatitis and/or eosinophilia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
PREZISTA/ritonavir may interact with many drugs; therefore, advise patients to report to their healthcare provider the use of any other prescription or nonprescription medication or herbal products, including St. John's wort [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Instruct patients receiving combined hormonal contraception or the progestin only pill to use an effective alternative contraceptive method or add a barrier method during therapy with PREZISTA/ritonavir because hormonal levels may decrease [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
Inform patients that redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, including PREZISTA/ritonavir, and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known at this time [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Advise patients to inform their healthcare provider immediately of any symptoms of infection, as in some patients with advanced HIV infection (AIDS), signs and symptoms of inflammation from previous infections may occur soon after anti-HIV treatment is started [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that there is an antiretroviral pregnancy registry to monitor fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to PREZISTA [see Use in Specific Populations].
Instruct women with HIV-1 infection not to breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in breast milk [see Use in Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis
Darunavir was evaluated for carcinogenic potential by oral gavage administration to mice and rats up to 104 weeks. Daily doses of 150, 450 and 1000 mg/kg were administered to mice and doses of 50, 150 and 500 mg/kg was administered to rats. A dose-related increase in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were observed in males and females of both species as well as an increase in thyroid follicular cell adenomas in male rats. The observed hepatocellular findings in rodents are considered to be of limited relevance to humans. Repeated administration of darunavir to rats caused hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and increased thyroid hormone elimination, which predispose rats, but not humans, to thyroid neoplasms. At the highest tested doses, the systemic exposures to darunavir (based on AUC) were between 0.4and 0.7-fold (mice) and 0.7-and 1-fold (rats), relative to those observed in humans at the recommended therapeutic doses (600/100 mg twice daily or 800/100 mg once daily).
Darunavir was not mutagenic or genotoxic in a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays including bacterial reserve mutation (Ames), chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes and in vivo micronucleus test in mice.
Impairment Of Fertility
No effects on fertility or early embryonic development were observed with darunavir in rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to PREZISTA during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) 1-800-258-4263.
Available limited data from the APR show no difference in rate of overall birth defects for darunavir (2.7%) compared with the background rate for major birth defects of 2.7% in a U.S. reference population of the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) [see Data]. The rate of miscarriage is not reported in the APR. The estimated background rate of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies in the U.S. general population is 15-20%. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
Studies in animals did not show evidence of developmental toxicity. Exposures (based on AUC) in rats were 3-fold higher, whereas in mice and rabbits, exposures were lower (less than 1-fold) than human exposures at the recommended daily dose [see Data].
The recommended dosage in pregnant patients is PREZISTA 600 mg taken with ritonavir 100 mg twice daily with food.
PREZISTA 800 mg taken with ritonavir 100 mg once daily should only be considered in certain pregnant patients who are already on a stable PREZISTA 800 mg with ritonavir 100 mg once daily regimen prior to pregnancy, are virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL), and in whom a change to twice daily PREZISTA 600 mg with ritonavir 100 mg may compromise tolerability or compliance [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
PREZISTA/ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily or 800/100 mg once daily) in combination with a background regimen was evaluated in a clinical trial of 34 pregnant women during the second and third trimesters, and postpartum. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that exposure to darunavir and ritonavir as part of an antiretroviral regimen was lower during pregnancy compared with postpartum (6-12 weeks). Virologic response was preserved throughout the trial period in both arms. No mother to child transmission occurred in the infants born to the 29 subjects who stayed on the antiretroviral treatment through delivery. PREZISTA/ritonavir was well tolerated during pregnancy and postpartum. There were no new clinically relevant safety findings compared with the known safety profile of PREZISTA/ritonavir in HIV-1 infected adults [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Based on prospective reports to the APR (through July 2015) of 532 live births following exposure to darunavir-containing regimens during pregnancy (including 333 exposed in the first trimester and 199 exposed in the second/third trimester), there was no difference in rate of overall birth defects for darunavir compared with the background rate for major birth defects in a U.S. reference population of the MACDP.
The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.2% to 5.1%) with first trimester exposure to darunavir containing regimens and 1.5% (95% CI: 0.3% to 4.4%) with second/third trimester exposure to darunavir containing regimens.
Reproduction studies conducted with darunavir showed no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity in mice (doses up to 1000 mg/kg from gestation day (GD) 6-15 with darunavir alone) and rats (doses up to 1000 mg/kg from GD 7-19 in the presence or absence of ritonavir) as well as in rabbits (doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day from GD 8-20 with darunavir alone). In these studies, darunavir exposures (based on AUC) were higher in rats (3-fold), whereas in mice and rabbits, exposures were lower (less than 1-fold) compared to those obtained in humans at the recommended clinical dose of darunavir boosted with ritonavir.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV.
There are no data on the presence of darunavir in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Darunavir is present in the milk of lactating rats [see Data]. Because of the potential for (1) HIV transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants) and (3) serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving PREZISTA [see Use in Specific Populations].
Studies in rats (with darunavir alone or with ritonavir) have demonstrated that darunavir is secreted in the milk. In the rat pre-and postnatal development study, a reduction in pup body weight gain was observed due to exposure of pups to drug substances via milk. The maximal maternal plasma exposures achieved with darunavir (up to 1000 mg/kg with ritonavir) were approximately 50% of those obtained in humans at the recommended clinical dose with ritonavir.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Use of PREZISTA may reduce the efficacy of combined hormonal contraceptives and the progestin only pill. Advise patients using combined hormonal contraceptives or the progestin only pill to use an effective alternative contraceptive method or add a barrier method of contraception [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
PREZISTA/ritonavir is not recommended in pediatric patients below 3 years of age because of toxicity and mortality observed in juvenile rats dosed with darunavir (from 20 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg) up to days 23 to 26 of age [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use In Specific Populations and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and virologic and immunologic responses of PREZISTA/ritonavir administered twice daily were evaluated in treatment-experienced HIV-1infected pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighting at least 10 kg. These subjects were evaluated in clinical trials TMC114-C212 (80 subjects, 6 to less than 18 years of age) and TMC114-228 (21 subjects, 3 to less than 6 years of age) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies]. Frequency, type, and severity of adverse drug reactions in pediatric subjects were comparable to those observed in adults [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Refer to DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for twice-daily dosing recommendations for pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 10 kg.
In clinical trial TMC114-C230, the safety, pharmacokinetic profile and virologic and immunologic responses of PREZISTA/ritonavir administered once daily were evaluated in treatment-na´ve HIV-1 infected pediatric subjects 12 to less than 18 years of age (12 subjects) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies]. Frequency, type, and severity of adverse drug reactions in pediatric subjects were comparable to those observed in adults [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Once daily dosing recommendations for pediatric patients 3 to less than 12 years of age were derived using population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation. Although a PREZISTA/ritonavir once daily dosing pediatric trial was not conducted in children less than 12 years of age, there is sufficient clinical safety data to support the predicted PREZISTA exposures for the dosing recommendations in this age group [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for once-daily dosing recommendations for pediatric subjects 3 to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 10 kg.
Juvenile Animal Data
In a juvenile toxicity study where rats were directly dosed with darunavir (up to 1000 mg/kg), deaths occurred from post-natal day 5 at plasma exposure levels ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 of the human exposure levels. In a 4-week rat toxicology study, when dosing was initiated on post-natal day 23 (the human equivalent of 2 to 3 years of age), no deaths were observed with a plasma exposure (in combination with ritonavir) 2 times the human plasma exposure levels.
Clinical studies of PREZISTA did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration and monitoring of PREZISTA in elderly patients, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dosage adjustment of PREZISTA/ritonavir is necessary for patients with either mild or moderate hepatic impairment. No pharmacokinetic or safety data are available regarding the use of PREZISTA/ritonavir in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, PREZISTA/ritonavir is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the pharmacokinetics of darunavir were not significantly affected in HIV-infected subjects with moderate renal impairment (CrCL between 30-60 mL/min, n=20). No pharmacokinetic data are available in HIV-1-infected patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease; however, because the renal clearance of darunavir is limited, a decrease in total body clearance is not expected in patients with renal impairment. As darunavir and ritonavir are highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that they will be significantly removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/30/2016
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