"Nov. 2, 2012 -- Safety steps taken in the wake of the fungal meningitis outbreak have worsened drug shortages, raising questions about whether the U.S. must choose between the safety and the availability of crucial medicines.
The maximum recommended intrathecal PRIALT dose is 19.2 mcg/day. The maximum intrathecal dose of PRIALT in clinical trials was 912 mcg/day. In some patients who received intrathecal doses greater than the maximum recommended dose, exaggerated pharmacological effects (e.g., ataxia, nystagmus, dizziness, stupor, unresponsiveness, spinal myoclonus, confusion, sedation, hypotension, word-finding difficulties, garbled speech, nausea, and vomiting) were observed. There was no indication of respiratory depression. Overdoses may occur due to pump programming errors or incorrect drug concentration preparations. In these cases, patients were observed and ziconotide was either temporarily discontinued or permanently withdrawn. Most patients recovered within 24 hours after withdrawal of drug. In the event of an overdose, elimination of ziconotide from CSF would be expected to remain constant (CSF t½=4.6 hours). Therefore, within 24 hours of stopping therapy, the ziconotide CSF concentration should be less than 5% of peak levels.
There is no known antidote to ziconotide. General medical supportive measures should be administered to patients who receive an overdose until the exaggerated pharmacological effects of the drug have resolved. Treatment for an overdose is hospitalization, when needed, and symptom-related supportive care. Ziconotide does not bind to opiate receptors and its pharmacological effects are not blocked by opioid antagonists.
In the event of an inadvertent intravenous or epidural administration, adverse reactions could include severe hypotension, which can be treated with a recumbent posture and blood pressure support as required. The half-life of PRIALT in serum is 1.3 hours.
- PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to ziconotide or any of its formulation components.
- PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with any other concomitant treatment or medical condition that would render intrathecal administration hazardous. Contraindications to the use of intrathecal analgesia include the presence of infection at the microinfusion injection site, uncontrolled bleeding diathesis, and spinal canal obstruction that impairs circulation of CSF.
- PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with a pre-existing history of psychosis.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/12/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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