Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) (cont.)
Benjamin Wedro, MD, FACEP, FAAEM
Dr. Ben Wedro practices emergency medicine at Gundersen Clinic, a regional trauma center in La Crosse, Wisconsin. His background includes undergraduate and medical studies at the University of Alberta, a Family Practice internship at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario and residency training in Emergency Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.
Bhupinder S. Anand, MBBS, MD, DPHIL (OXON)
Dr. Anand received MBBS degree from Medical College Amritsar, University of Punjab. He completed his Internal Medicine residency at the Postgraduate Institute of medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. He was trained in the field of Gastroenterology and obtained the DPhil degree. Dr. Anand is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology.
In this Article
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) definition
- What causes primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- What are the risk factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- What are the signs and symptoms of primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- How is the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis made?
- What is the treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- Liver transplant
- What complications are associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- Can primary sclerosing cholangitis be prevented?
- What is the prognosis and life expectancy for a person with primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- Find a local Gastroenterologist in your town
What are the signs and symptoms of primary sclerosing cholangitis?
In its early stages, PSC is asymptomatic (there are no symptoms). It is only when the person develops cholestasis because of the inability of bile to drain from the liver, do symptoms occur. These early symptoms include itching and fatigue. As the bilirubin levels in the blood become elevated, jaundice or a yellowish tinge to the skin, may occur. Since there may be liver inflammation, the person may complain of pain beneath the ribs in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
The inability of the bile ducts to adequately drain reduces the flow of bile and there can be sludge formation in the bile ducts leading to the risk of infection. This may cause fever and increased pain.
Because PSC is a progressive disease, symptoms may come and go over several months and years after the diagnosis is made.
As the disease progresses, cirrhosis may occur leading to decreased liver function and its associated signs and symptoms. These include bleeding from the esophagus and stomach due to varices, ascites (fluid collection in the abdomen) because of poor protein production by the liver, easy bruising because of decreased platelet production in the liver, and confusion due to hepatic encephalopathy because the liver cannot clear waste products of metabolism.
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