"Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to two population-based analyses published online January 11 in JAMA Internal Medicine. The authors suggest the widely used drugs "...
(tacrolimus) Capsules and Injection
MALIGNANCIES AND SERIOUS INFECTIONS
- Increased risk of development of lymphoma and other malignancies, particularly of the skin, due to immunosuppression [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoal infections, including opportunistic infections [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressive therapy and management of organ transplant patients should prescribe Prograf. Patients receiving the drug should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical resources. The physician responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Prograf is available for oral administration as capsules (tacrolimus capsules USP) containing the equivalent of 0.5 mg, 1 mg or 5 mg of anhydrous tacrolimus USP. Inactive ingredients include lactose monohydrate NF, hypromellose USP, croscarmellose sodium NF, and magnesium stearate NF. The 0.5 mg capsule shell contains gelatin NF, titanium dioxide USP and ferric oxide NF, the 1 mg capsule shell contains gelatin NF and titanium dioxide USP, and the 5 mg capsule shell contains gelatin NF, titanium dioxide USP and ferric oxide NF.
Prograf is also available as a sterile solution (tacrolimus injection) containing the equivalent of 5 mg anhydrous tacrolimus USP in 1 mL for administration by intravenous infusion only. Each mL contains polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil (HCO-60), 200 mg, and dehydrated alcohol, USP, 80.0% v/v. Prograf injection must be diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection before use.
Tacrolimus, previously known as FK506, is the active ingredient in Prograf. Tacrolimus is a macrolide immunosuppressant produced by Streptomyces tsukubaensis. Chemically, tacrolimus is designated as [3S[3R*[E(1S*,3S*,4S*)], 4S*,5R*,8S*,9E,12R*,14R*,15S*,16R*,18S*,19S*,26aR*]] 5,6,8,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,24,25,26,26a-hexadecahydro-5,19-dihydroxy-3-[2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycyclohexyl)-1methylethenyl]-14,16-dimethoxy-4,10,12,18-tetramethyl-8-(2-propenyl)-15,19-epoxy-3H-pyrido[2,1-c][1,4] oxaazacyclotricosine-1,7,20,21(4H,23H)-tetrone, monohydrate.
The chemical structure of tacrolimus is:
Tacrolimus has an empirical formula of C44H69NO12•H2O and a formula weight of 822.03. Tacrolimus appears as white crystals or crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, and very soluble in methanol and chloroform.
What are the possible side effects of tacrolimus (Prograf)?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
- fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, sores in your mouth and throat;
- change in your mental state, problems with speech or walking, decreased vision (may start gradually and get worse quickly);
- pale or yellowed skin, dark colored urine, confusion or weakness;
- feeling light-headed or short of breath, rapid heart rate,...
What are the precautions when taking tacrolimus (Prograf)?
Before taking tacrolimus, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other macrolide medications (such as sirolimus, erythromycin); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: mineral imbalances (such as high potassium), kidney disease, any recent/current infections, cancer, liver disease, high blood pressure, diabetes.
Tacrolimus may cause a condition that affects the heart rhythm (QT prolongation). QT prolongation can infrequently result in serious (rarely fatal) fast/irregular heartbeat and other symptoms (such as severe...
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/23/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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