"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Akynzeo (netupitant and palonosetron) to treat nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.
Akynzeo is a fixed combination capsule comprised of two drugs. Oral palonose"...
(aldesleukin) for Injection, for Intravenous Infusion
Therapy with Proleukin® (aldesleukin) should be restricted to patients with normal cardiac and pulmonary functions as defined by thallium stress testing and formal pulmonary function testing. Extreme caution should be used in patients with a normal thallium stress test and a normal pulmonary function test who have a history of cardiac or pulmonary disease.
Proleukin should be administered in a hospital setting under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of anticancer agents. An intensive care facility and specialists skilled in cardiopulmonary or intensive care medicine must be available.
Proleukin administration has been associated with capillary leak syndrome (CLS) which is characterized by a loss of vascular tone and extravasation of plasma proteins and fluid into the extravascular space. CLS results in hypotension and reduced organ perfusion which may be severe and can result in death. CLS may be associated with cardiac arrhythmias (supraventricular and ventricular), angina, myocardial infarction, respiratory insufficiency requiring intubation, gastrointestinal bleeding or infarction, renal insufficiency, edema, and mental status changes.
Proleukin treatment is associated with impaired neutrophil function (reduced chemotaxis) and with an increased risk of disseminated infection, including sepsis and bacterial endocarditis. Consequently, preexisting bacterial infections should be adequately treated prior to initiation of Proleukin therapy. Patients with indwelling central lines are particularly at risk for infection with gram positive microorganisms. Antibiotic prophylaxis with oxacillin, nafcillin, ciprofloxacin, or vancomycin has been associated with a reduced incidence of staphylococcal infections.
Proleukin administration should be withheld in patients developing moderate to severe lethargy or somnolence; continued administration may result in coma.
Proleukin® (aldesleukin), a human recombinant interleukin-2 product, is a highly purified protein with a molecular weight of approximately 15,300 daltons. The chemical name is desalanyl-1, serine-125 human interleukin-2. Proleukin, a lymphokine, is produced by recombinant DNA technology using a genetically engineered E. coli strain containing an analog of the human interleukin-2 gene. Genetic engineering techniques were used to modify the human IL-2 gene, and the resulting expression clone encodes a modified human interleukin-2. This recombinant form differs from native interleukin-2 in the following ways: a) Proleukin is not glycosylated because it is derived from E. coli ; b) the molecule has no N-terminal alanine; the codon for this amino acid was deleted during the genetic engineering procedure; c) the molecule has serine substituted for cysteine at amino acid position 125; this was accomplished by site specific manipulation during the genetic engineering procedure; and d) the aggregation state of Proleukin is likely to be different from that of native interleukin-2.
The in vitro biological activities of the native nonrecombinant molecule have been reproduced with Proleukin.1,2
Proleukin is supplied as a sterile, white to off-white, lyophilized cake in single-use vials intended for intravenous administration. When reconstituted with 1.2 mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP, each mL contains 18 million International Units (1.1 mg) Proleukin, 50 mg mannitol, and 0.18 mg sodium dodecyl sulfate, buffered with approximately 0.17 mg monobasic and 0.89 mg dibasic sodium phosphate to a pH of 7.5 (range 7.2 to 7.8). The manufacturing process for Proleukin involves fermentation in a defined medium containing tetracycline hydrochloride. The presence of the antibiotic is not detectable in the final product. Proleukin contains no preservatives in the final product.
Proleukin biological potency is determined by a lymphocyte proliferation bioassay and is expressed in International Units as established by the World Health Organization 1st International Standard for Interleukin-2 (human). The relationship between potency and protein mass is as follows:
18 million International Units Proleukin = 1.1 mg protein
1. Doyle MV, Lee MT, Fong S. Comparison of the biological activities of human recombinant interleukin-2125 and native interleukin-2. J Biol Response Mod 1985; 4:96 -109.
2. Ralph P, Nakoinz I, Doyle M, et al. Human B and T lymphocyte stimulating properties of interleukin-2 (IL-2) muteins. In: Immune Regulation By Characterized Polypeptides. Alan R. Liss, Inc. 1987; 453-62.
3. Winkelhake JL and Gauny SS. Human recombinant interleukin-2 as an experimental therapeutic. Pharmacol Rev 1990; 42:1-28.
What are the possible side effects of aldesleukin (Proleukin)?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
- severe drowsiness;
- feeling like you might pass out;
- chest pain, fast or pounding heartbeats;
- runny or stuffy nose, cough, rapid breathing and heart rate, trouble breathing, swelling and pain in any part of your body;
- problems with vision, speech, balance, or coordination;
- mood or behavior changes,...
What are the precautions when taking aldesleukin for injection (Proleukin)?
See also Warning section.
Before using aldesleukin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney problems, heart disease (e.g., fast/irregular heartbeat, recent heart attack, angina), liver disease, lung disease, stomach problems (e.g., ischemic bowel, perforation, bleeding ulcers), high levels of calcium (hypercalcemia), history of organ transplant, seizures.
This medication may worsen certain types of immune system disorders (autoimmune and inflammatory type). Before using...
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/8/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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