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Propranolol Hydrochloride Injection

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Propranolol Hydrochloride Injection

SIDE EFFECTS

In a series of 225 patients, there were 6 deaths (see Clinical Studies). Cardiovascular events (hypotension, congestive heart failure, bradycardia, and heart block) were the most common. The only other event reported by more than one patient was nausea.

Other adverse events for intravenous propranolol, reported during post-marketing surveillance include cardiac arrest, dyspnea, and cutaneous ulcers.

The following adverse events have been reported with use of formulations of sustained- or immediate-release oral propranolol and may be expected with intravenous propranolol.

Cardiovascular

Bradycardia; congestive heart failure; intensification of AV block; hypotension; paresthesia of hands; thrombocytopenic purpura; arterial insufficiency, usually of the Raynaud type.

Central Nervous System

Light-headedness; mental depression manifested by insomnia, lassitude, weakness, fatigue; reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia; visual disturbances; hallucinations; vivid dreams; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics. For immediate-release formulations, fatigue, lethargy, and vivid dreams appear dose related.

Gastrointestinal

Nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, constipation, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, ischemic colitis.

Allergic

Pharyngitis and agranulocytosis; erythematous rash, fever combined with aching and sore throat; laryngospasm, and respiratory distress.

Respiratory

Bronchospasm.

Hematologic

Agranulocytosis, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenic purpura.

Autoimmune

In extremely rare instances, systemic lupus erythematosus has been reported.

Miscellaneous

Alopecia, LE-like reactions, psoriaform rashes, dry eyes, male impotence, and Peyronie's disease have been reported rarely. Oculomucocutaneous reactions involving the skin, serous membranes and conjunctivae reported for a beta-blocker (practolol) have not been associated with propranolol.

Read the Propranolol Hydrochloride Injection (propranolol hydrochloride injection) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Caution should be exercised when propranolol is administered with drugs that have an effect on CYP2D6, 1A2, or 2C19 metabolic pathways. Co-administration of such drugs with propranolol may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions and changes in its efficacy and/or toxicity (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Drug Interactions).

Cardiovascular Drugs

Antiarrhythmics

Propafenone has negative inotropic and beta-blocking properties that can be additive to those of propranolol.

Quinidine increases the concentration of propranolol and produces a greater degree of clinical beta-blockade and may cause postural hypotension.

Disopyramide is a Type I antiarrhythmic drug with potent negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and has been associated with severe bradycardia, asystole and heart failure when administered with propranolol.

Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent with negative chronotropic properties that may be additive to those seen with propranolol.

The clearance of lidocaine is reduced when administered with propranolol. Lidocaine toxicity has been reported following coadministration with propranolol.

Caution should be exercised when administering propranolol with drugs that slow A-V nodal conduction, e.g. digitalis, lidocaine and calcium channel blockers.

Calcium Channel Blockers

Caution should be exercised when patients receiving a beta-blocker are administered a calcium-channel-blocking drug with negative inotropic and/or chronotropic effects. Both agents may depress myocardial contractility or atrioventricular conduction.

There have been reports of significant bradycardia, heart failure, and cardiovascular collapse with concurrent use of verapamil and beta-blockers.

Co-administration of propranolol and diltiazem in patients with cardiac disease has been associated with bradycardia, hypotension, high degree heart block, and heart failure.

ACE Inhibitors

When combined with beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors can cause hypotension, particularly in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.

ACE inhibitors have been reported to increase bronchial hyperreactivity when administered with propranolol.

The antihypertensive effects of clonidine may be antagonized by beta-blockers. Propranolol should be administered cautiously to patients withdrawing from clonidine.

Alpha-blockers

Prazosin has been associated with prolongation of first dose hypotension in the presence of beta-blockers.

Postural hypotension has been reported in patients taking both beta-blockers and terazosin or doxazosin.

Reserpine

Patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs, such as reserpine, with propranolol should be closely observed for excess reduction of resting sympathetic nervous activity, which may result in hypotension, marked bradycardia, vertigo, syncopal attacks, or orthostatic hypotension. Administration of reserpine with propranolol may also potentiate depression.

Inotropic Agents

Patients on long-term therapy with propranolol may experience uncontrolled hypertension if administered epinephrine as a consequence of unopposed alpha-receptor stimulation. Epinephrine is therefore not indicated in the treatment of propranolol overdose (see OVERDOSAGE).

Isoproterenol and Dobutamine

Propranolol is a competitive inhibitor of beta-receptor agonists, and its effects can be reversed by administration of such agents, e.g., dobutamine or isoproterenol. Also, propranolol may reduce sensitivity to dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients undergoing evaluation for myocardial ischemia.

Non-Cardiovascular Drugs

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have been reported to blunt the antihypertensive effect of beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agents.

Administration of indomethacin with propranolol may reduce the efficacy of propranolol in reducing blood pressure and heart rate.

Antidepressants

The hypotensive effects of MAO inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants may be exacerbated when administered with beta-blockers by interfering with the beta blocking activity of propranolol.

Anesthetic Agents

Methoxyflurane and trichloroethylene may depress myocardial contractility when administered with propranolol.

Warfarin

Administration of propranolol with warfarin increases the concentration of warfarin. Therefore, the prothrombin time should be monitored.

Neuroleptic Drugs

Hypotension and cardiac arrest have been reported with the concomitant use of propranolol and haloperidol.

Thyroxine

Thyroxine may result in a lower than expected T3 concentration when used concomitantly with propranolol.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/4/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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