Prostate Cancer (cont.)
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Dennis Lee, MD
Dr. Lee was born in Shanghai, China, and received his college and medical training in the United States. He is fluent in English and three Chinese dialects. He graduated with chemistry departmental honors from Harvey Mudd College. He was appointed president of AOA society at UCLA School of Medicine. He underwent internal medicine residency and gastroenterology fellowship training at Cedars Sinai Medical Center.
In this Article
- What is the prostate gland?
- What is prostate cancer?
- Why is prostate cancer important?
- What are prostate cancer causes?
- What are prostate cancer symptoms and signs?
- What are the screening tests for prostate cancer?
- What are false-positive elevations in the PSA test?
- What refinements have been made in the PSA test?
- How is prostate cancer diagnosed?
- How is the staging of prostate cancer done?
- What are the treatment options for prostate cancer?
- What about prostate cancer surgery?
- What about radiation therapy for prostate cancer?
- What about hormonal treatment for prostate cancer?
- What is cryotherapy for prostate cancer?
- What is HIFU for prostate cancer?
- What is chemotherapy for prostate cancer?
- What are the differences between hormonal treatment and chemotherapy?
- What about herbal or other alternative medicine treatments for prostate cancer?
- What is active surveillance for prostate cancer?
- Can prostate cancer be prevented?
- What will be the future treatments for prostate cancer?
- Prostate Cancer At A Glance
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
What about radiation therapy for prostate cancer?
The goal of radiotherapy is to damage the cancer cells and stop their growth or kill them. This works because the rapidly dividing (reproducing) cancer cells are more vulnerable to destruction by the radiation than are the neighboring normal cells. Clinical trials have been conducted using radiation therapy for patients with organ-confined (localized) prostate cancer. These trials have shown that radiation therapy resulted in a rate of survival (being alive) at 10 years after treatment that is comparable to that for radical prostatectomy. Incontinence and impotence can occur as complications of radiation therapy, as with surgery, although perhaps less often than with surgery. More data are needed, however, on the risks and benefits of radiation therapy beyond 10 years, especially because late recurrences (reappearances) of the cancer can sometimes occur after radiation.
Choosing between radiation and surgery to treat organ-confined prostate cancer involves considerations of the patient's preference, age, and coexisting medical conditions (fitness for surgery), as well as of the extent of the cancer. Approximately 30% of patients with organ-confined prostate cancer are treated with radiation. Sometimes, oncologists combine radiation therapy with surgery or hormonal therapy in an effort to improve the long-term results of treatment in the early or later stages of prostate cancer.
Radiation therapy can be given either as external beam radiation over perhaps six or seven weeks or as an implant of radioactive seeds (brachytherapy) directly into the prostate. In external beam radiation, high energy X-rays are aimed at the tumor and the area immediately surrounding it. In brachytherapy, radioactive seeds are inserted through needles into the prostate gland under the guidance of transrectally taken ultrasound pictures. Brachy, from the Greek language, means short. The term brachytherapy thus refers to placing the treatment (radiation therapy) directly into or a short distance away from the cancerous target tissue. The theoretical advantage of brachytherapy over external beam radiation is that delivering the radiation energy directly into the prostate tissue should minimize damage to the surrounding tissues and organs.
Potential disadvantages of radiation therapy include a transient swelling of the prostate that may cause obstruction to the flow of urine and increase symptoms that may already be present because of an enlarged prostate. Side effects of external beam radiation include skin burning or irritation and hair loss at the area where the radiation beam goes through the skin. Both can cause severe fatigue, diarrhea, and discomfort on urination. These effects are almost always temporary. However, there are concerns about the long-term effects of radiation, and although still not proven, some studies have reported a higher chance of developing bladder or rectal cancer many years after undergoing radiation for prostate cancer. Although surgery can be done in case radiation therapy fails to cure prostate cancer (salvage radical prostatectomy), it is fraught with greater surgical difficulty and involves a significantly higher chances of complications like impotence and urinary incontinence.
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