Prostate Cancer (cont.)
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Dennis Lee, MD
Dr. Lee was born in Shanghai, China, and received his college and medical training in the United States. He is fluent in English and three Chinese dialects. He graduated with chemistry departmental honors from Harvey Mudd College. He was appointed president of AOA society at UCLA School of Medicine. He underwent internal medicine residency and gastroenterology fellowship training at Cedars Sinai Medical Center.
In this Article
- Prostate cancer facts
- What is the prostate gland?
- What is prostate cancer?
- Why is prostate cancer important?
- What are prostate cancer causes?
- What are prostate cancer symptoms and signs?
- What are the screening tests for prostate cancer?
- What are false positive elevations in the PSA test?
- What refinements have been made in the PSA test?
- How is prostate cancer diagnosed and graded?
- How is the staging of prostate cancer done?
- What are the treatment options for prostate cancer?
- What about prostate cancer surgery?
- What about radiation therapy for prostate cancer?
- What about hormonal treatment for prostate cancer?
- What is cryotherapy for prostate cancer?
- What is HIFU for prostate cancer?
- What is chemotherapy for prostate cancer?
- What are the differences between hormonal treatment and chemotherapy?
- What about herbal or other alternative medicine treatments for prostate cancer?
- What is active surveillance for prostate cancer?
- Can prostate cancer be prevented?
- What will be the future treatments for prostate cancer?
- Controversy in prostate cancer today
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
What are prostate cancer causes?
The cause of prostate cancer is unknown, but the cancer is not thought to be related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The risk (predisposing) factors for prostate cancer include advancing age, genetics (heredity), hormonal influences, and such environmental factors as toxins, chemicals, and industrial products. The chances of developing prostate cancer increase with age. Thus, prostate cancer under age 40 is extremely rare, while it is common in men older than 80 years of age. As a matter of fact, some studies have suggested that among men over 80 years of age, 50%-80% of them may have prostate cancer cells present in the prostate gland. More than 80% of prostate cancers are diagnosed in men older than 65 years of age.
There are differences in diagnosis and death rates among different racial groups. These differences in diagnosis and death rates are, however, more likely to reflect a difference in factors such as environmental exposure, diet, lifestyle, and health-seeking behavior rather than any racial susceptibility to prostate cancer. Recent studies indicate that this disparity is progressively decreasing with chances of complete cure in men undergoing treatment for organ-confined prostate cancer (cancer that is limited to within the prostate without spread outside the confines of the prostate gland), irrespective of race.
Genetics (heredity), as just mentioned, plays a role in the risk of developing a prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is more common among family members of individuals with prostate cancer.
Testosterone, the male hormone produced by the testicles, directly stimulates the growth of both normal prostate tissue and prostate cancer cells. Therefore, this hormone is thought to be involved in the development and growth of prostate cancer. The important implication of the role of this hormone is that decreasing the level of testosterone should be (and usually is) effective in inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer.
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