"What are antacids, and how do they work?
Antacids are a class of drugs used to treat conditions caused by the acid that is produced by the stomach. The stomach naturally secretes an acid called hydrochloric acid that helps to break "...
Worldwide, approximately 80,500 patients have been treated with pantoprazole in clinical trials involving various dosages and duration of treatment.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Safety in nine randomized comparative US clinical trials in patients with GERD included 1,473 patients on oral pantoprazole (20 mg or 40 mg), 299 patients on an H2-receptor antagonist, 46 patients on another proton pump inhibitor, and 82 patients on placebo. The most frequently occurring adverse reactions are listed in Table 1.
The number of patients treated in comparative studies with I.V. pantoprazole is limited; however, the adverse reactions seen were similar to those seen in the oral studies. Thrombophlebitis was the only new adverse reaction identified with I.V. pantoprazole.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in Clinical Trials
of Adult Patients with GERD at a Frequency of > 2%
Additional adverse reactions that were reported for PROTONIX in US clinical trials with a frequency of ≤ 2% are listed below by body system:
Nervous: depression, vertigo
Special Senses: blurred vision
In clinical studies of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, adverse reactions reported in 35 patients taking PROTONIX 80 mg/day to 240 mg/day for up to 2 years were similar to those reported in adult patients with GERD.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of PROTONIX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
These adverse reactions are listed below by body system:
Investigations: weight changes
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: severe dermatologic reactions (some fatal), including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and angioedema (Quincke's edema)
Musculoskeletal Disorders: rhabdomyolysis, bone fracture
Psychiatric Disorder: hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, somnolence
Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea
Read the Protonix I.V. (pantoprazole sodium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Interference With Antiretroviral Therapy
Concomitant use of atazanavir or nelfinavir with proton pump inhibitors is not recommended. Coadministration of atazanavir or nelfinavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to substantially decrease atazanavir or nelfinavir plasma concentrations and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect and development of drug resistance.
There have been postmarketing reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors, including pantoprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin concomitantly should be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time.
Concomitant administration of pantoprazole and clopidogrel in healthy subjects had no clinically important effect on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. No dose adjustment of clopidogrel is necessary when administered with an approved dose of PROTONIX.
Drugs For Which Gastric Ph Can Affect Bioavailability
Pantoprazole causes long-lasting inhibition of gastric acid secretion, therefore pantoprazole may interfere with absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability (e.g., ketoconazole, ampicillin esters, iron salts, and digoxin).
False Positive Urine Tests For THC
There have been reports of false positive urine screening tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors including pantoprazole. An alternative confirmatory method should be considered to verify positive results.
Case reports, published population pharmacokinetic studies, and retrospective analyses suggest that concomitant administration of PPIs and methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate. However, no formal drug interaction studies of methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Read the Protonix I.V. Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/3/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Protonix I.V. Information
- Protonix I.V. Drug Interactions Center: pantoprazole iv
- Protonix I.V. Side Effects Center
- Protonix I.V. FDA Approved Prescribing Information including Dosage
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Get the latest treatment options.