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PROTOPAM (pralidoxime chloride) is not effective in the treatment of poisoning due to phosphorus, inorganic phosphates, or organophosphates not having anticholinesterase activity.
PROTOPAM (pralidoxime chloride) is not indicated as an antidote for intoxication by pesticides of the carbamate class since it may increase the toxicity of carbaryl.
PROTOPAM (pralidoxime chloride) has been well tolerated in most cases, but it must be remembered that the desperate condition of the organophosphate-poisoned patient will generally mask such minor signs and symptoms as have been noted in normal subjects.
Intravenous administration of PROTOPAM (pralidoxime chloride) should be carried out slowly and, preferably, by continuous or intermittent infusion, since temporary worsening of cholinergic manifestations (i.e. tachycardia, cardiac arrest, laryngospasm, and muscle rigidity or paralysis) may occur if PROTOPAM (pralidoxime chloride) is infused too rapidly. The intermittent infusion rate should not exceed 200 mg/minute. If intravenous administration is not feasible, intramuscular or subcutaneous injection should be used (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
PROTOPAM (pralidoxime chloride) should be used with great caution in treating organophosphate overdosage in cases of myasthenia gravis since it may precipitate a myasthenic crisis.
Because pralidoxime is excreted in the urine, a decrease in renal function will result in increased blood levels of the drug. Thus, the dosage of PROTOPAM (pralidoxime chloride) should be reduced in the presence of renal insufficiency.
Treatment of organophosphate poisoning should be instituted without waiting for the results of laboratory tests. Red blood cell, plasma cholinesterase, and urinary paranitrophenol measurements (in the case of parathion exposure) may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and following the course of the illness, although such tests may be normal in the face of clinically significant organophosphate poisoning. A reduction in red blood cell cholinesterase concentration to below 50% of normal has been seen only with organophosphate ester poisoning.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Because pralidoxime chloride is indicated for short-term emergency use only, no investigations of its potential for carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, or impairment of fertility have been conducted by the manufacturer, or reported in the literature.
Teratogenic Effects—Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with pralidoxime chloride. It is also not known whether pralidoxime chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Pralidoxime chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when pralidoxime chloride is administered to a nursing woman.
There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical trials that establish the effectiveness of pralidoxime chloride in pediatric patients. Efficacy has been extrapolated from the adult population and is supported by nonclinical studies, pharmacokinetic studies in adults and experience in the pediatric population (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). As in adults, laryngospasm, cardiac arrest, tachycardia, and muscle rigidity or paralysis have been reported following rapid intravenous injection. Muscle fasciculations, apnea, and convulsions have also been reported.
Clinical studies of PROTOPAM (pralidoxime chloride) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/13/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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