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The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Serious Rash, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Angioedema and Anaphylaxis Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Multi-organ Hypersensitivity Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Persistent Sleepiness [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Psychiatric Symptoms [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machinery [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Cardiovascular Events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Most Common Adverse Reactions
In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the most common adverse reactions ( ≥ 5%) associated with the use of PROVIGIL more frequently than placebo-treated patients were headache, nausea, nervousness, rhinitis, diarrhea, back pain, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, and dyspepsia. The adverse reaction profile was similar across these studies.
Table 1 presents the adverse reactions that occurred at a rate of 1% or more and were more frequent in PROVIGIL-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients in the placebo-controlled clinical trials.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions in Pooled
Placebo-Controlled Trials* in Narcolepsy, OSA, and SWD
(n = 934)
(n = 567)
|Abnormal Liver Function||2||1|
|* Adverse Reactions that occurred in ≥ 1% of PROVIGIL-treated patients (either 200, 300, or 400 mg once daily) and greater incidence than placebo|
Dose-Dependent Adverse Reactions
In the placebo-controlled clinical trials which compared doses of 200, 300, and 400 mg/day of PROVIGIL and placebo, the following adverse reactions were dose related: headache and anxiety.
Adverse Reactions Resulting in Discontinuation of Treatment
In placebo-controlled clinical trials, 74 of the 934 patients (8%) who received PROVIGIL discontinued due to an adverse reaction compared to 3% of patients that received placebo. The most frequent reasons for discontinuation that occurred at a higher rate for PROVIGIL than placebo patients were headache (2%), nausea, anxiety, dizziness, insomnia, chest pain, and nervousness (each < 1%).
Clinical chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis parameters were monitored in the studies. Mean plasma levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were found to be higher following administration of PROVIGIL, but not placebo. Few patients, however, had GGT or AP elevations outside of the normal range. Shifts to higher, but not clinically significantly abnormal, GGT and AP values appeared to increase with time in the population treated with PROVIGIL in the placebo-controlled clinical trials. No differences were apparent in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, or total bilirubin.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of PROVIGIL. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Psychiatric disorders: psychomotor hyperactivity
Read the Provigil (modafinil) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Effects of PROVIGIL on CYP3A4/5 Substrates
The clearance of drugs that are substrates for CYP3A4/5 (e.g., steroidal contraceptives, cyclosporine, midazolam, and triazolam) may be increased by PROVIGIL via induction of metabolic enzymes, which results in lower systemic exposure. Dosage adjustment of these drugs should be considered when these drugs are used concomitantly with PROVIGIL [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
The effectiveness of steroidal contraceptives may be reduced when used with PROVIGIL and for one month after discontinuation of therapy. Alternative or concomitant methods of contraception are recommended for patients taking steroidal contraceptives (e.g., ethinyl estradiol) when treated concomitantly with PROVIGIL and for one month after discontinuation of PROVIGIL treatment.
Blood levels of cyclosporine may be reduced when used with PROVIGIL. Monitoring of circulating cyclosporine concentrations and appropriate dosage adjustment for cyclosporine should be considered when used concomitantly with PROVIGIL.
Effects of PROVIGIL on CYP2C19 Substrates
Elimination of drugs that are substrates for CYP2C19 (e.g., phenytoin, diazepam, propranolol, omeprazole, and clomipramine) may be prolonged by PROVIGIL via inhibition of metabolic enzymes, with resultant higher systemic exposure. In individuals deficient in the CYP2D6 enzyme, the levels of CYP2D6 substrates which have ancillary routes of elimination through CYP2C19, such as tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, may be increased by co-administration of PROVIGIL. Dose adjustments of these drugs and other drugs that are substrates for CYP2C19 may be necessary when used concomitantly with PROVIGIL [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors
Caution should be used when concomitantly administering MAO inhibitors and PROVIGIL.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
PROVIGIL contains modafinil, a Schedule IV controlled substance.
In humans, modafinil produces psychoactive and euphoric effects, alterations in mood, perception, thinking, and feelings typical of other CNS stimulants. In in vitro binding studies, modafinil binds to the dopamine reuptake site and causes an increase in extracellular dopamine, but no increase in dopamine release. Modafinil is reinforcing, as evidenced by its self-administration in monkeys previously trained to self-administer cocaine. In some studies, modafinil was also partially discriminated as stimulant-like. Physicians should follow patients closely, especially those with a history of drug and/or stimulant (e.g., methylphenidate, amphetamine, or cocaine) abuse. Patients should be observed for signs of misuse or abuse (e.g., incrementation of doses or drug-seeking behavior).
The abuse potential of modafinil (200, 400, and 800 mg) was assessed relative to methylphenidate (45 and 90 mg) in an inpatient study in individuals experienced with drugs of abuse. Results from this clinical study demonstrated that modafinil produced psychoactive and euphoric effects and feelings consistent with other scheduled CNS stimulants (methylphenidate).
In one placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effects of modafinil withdrawal were monitored following 9 weeks of modafinil use. There were no reported withdrawal symptoms with modafinil during 14 days of observation, although sleepiness returned in narcoleptic patients.
Read the Provigil Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/29/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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