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Details with Side Effects
In clinical studies, the development of localized infections of the mouth and pharynx with Candida albicans has occurred in patients treated with PULMICORT FLEXHALER. When such an infection develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e. oral antifungal) therapy while treatment with PULMICORT FLEXHALER continues, but at times, therapy with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) may need to be interrupted. Patients should rinse the mouth after inhalation of PULMICORT FLEXHALER.
Deterioration of Asthma or Acute Episodes
PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) is not a bronchodilator and is not indicated for the rapid relief of bronchospasm or other acute episodes of asthma. Patients should be instructed to contact their physician immediately if episodes of asthma not responsive to their usual doses of bronchodilators occur during the course of treatment with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) . During such episodes, patients may require therapy with oral corticosteroids.
An inhaled short acting beta2-agonist, not PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) , should be used to relieve acute symptoms such as shortness of breath. When prescribing PULMICORT FLEXHALER, the physician must also provide the patient with an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist (e.g. albuterol) for treatment of acute symptoms, despite regular twice-daily (morning and evening) use of PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) .
Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis
Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, rash, contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, and bronchospasm have been reported with use of PULMICORT FLEXHALER. Discontinue PULMICORT FLEXHALER if such reactions occur [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) contains small amounts of lactose, which contains trace levels of milk proteins. It is possible that cough, wheezing, or bronchospasm may occur in patients who have a severe milk protein allergy. [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS, Post-marketing Experience].
Patients who are on drugs that suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infection than healthy individuals. Chicken pox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chicken pox, therapy with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) or pooled intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), as appropriate, may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chicken pox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered. The immune responsiveness to varicella vaccine was evaluated in pediatric patients with asthma ages 12 months to 8 years with budesonide inhalation suspension.
An open-label, nonrandomized clinical study examined the immune responsiveness to varicella vaccine in 243 asthma patients 12 months to 8 years of age who were treated with budesonide inhalation suspension 0.25 mg to 1 mg daily (n=151) or non-corticosteroid asthma therapy (n=92) (i.e., beta2-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, cromones). The percentage of patients developing a seroprotective antibody titer of ≥ 5.0 (gpELISA value) in response to the vaccination was similar in patients treated with budesonide inhalation suspension (85%), compared to patients treated with non-corticosteroid asthma therapy (90%). No patient treated with budesonide inhalation suspension developed chicken pox as a result of vaccination.
Inhaled corticosteroids should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculosis infection of the respiratory tract, untreated systemic fungal, bacterial, viral or parasitic infections, or ocular herpes simplex.
Transferring Patients from Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy
Particular care is needed for patients who are transferred from systemically active corticosteroids to PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) because deaths due to adrenal insufficiency have occurred in asthmatic patients during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids to less systemically available inhaled corticosteroids. After withdrawal from systemic corticosteroids, a number of months are required for recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function.
Patients who have been previously maintained on 20 mg or more per day of prednisone (or its equivalent) may be most susceptible, particularly when their systemic corticosteroids have been almost completely withdrawn.
During this period of HPA suppression, patients may exhibit signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency when exposed to trauma, surgery, or infection (particularly gastroenteritis) or other conditions associated with severe electrolyte loss. Although PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) may provide control of asthma symptoms during these episodes, in recommended doses it supplies less than normal physiological amounts of glucocorticoid systemically and does NOT provide the mineralocorticoid activity that is necessary for coping with these emergencies.
During periods of stress or a severe asthma attack, patients who have been withdrawn from systemic corticosteroids should be instructed to resume oral corticosteroids (in large doses) immediately and to contact their physicians for further instruction. These patients should also be instructed to carry a medical identification card indicating that they may need supplementary systemic corticosteroids during periods of stress or a severe asthma attack.
Patients requiring oral corticosteroids should be weaned slowly from systemic corticosteroid use after transferring to PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) . Prednisone reduction can be accomplished by reducing the daily prednisone dose by 2.5 mg on a weekly basis during therapy with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) . Lung function (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] or morning peak expiratory flow [PEF]), beta-agonist use, and asthma symptoms should be carefully monitored during withdrawal of oral corticosteroids. In addition to monitoring asthma signs and symptoms, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency such as fatigue, lassitude, weakness, nausea and vomiting, and hypotension.
Transfer of patients from systemic corticosteroid therapy to PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) may unmask allergic conditions previously suppressed by the systemic corticosteroid therapy, (e.g., rhinitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, arthritis, eosinophilic conditions). Some patients may experience symptoms of systemically active corticosteroid withdrawal (e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, depression) despite maintenance or even improvement of respiratory function.
Hypercorticism and Adrenal Suppression
PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) will often help control asthma symptoms with less suppression of HPA function than therapeutically equivalent oral doses of prednisone. Since budesonide is absorbed into the circulation and can be systemically active at higher doses, the beneficial effects of PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) in minimizing HPA dysfunction may be expected only when recommended dosages are not exceeded and individual patients are titrated to the lowest effective dose. Since individual sensitivity to effects on cortisol production exists, physicians should consider this information when prescribing PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) . Because of the possibility of systemic absorption of inhaled corticosteroids, patients treated with PULMICORT FLEXHALER should be observed carefully for any evidence of systemic corticosteroid effects. Particular care should be taken in observing patients postoperatively or during periods of stress for evidence of inadequate adrenal response.
It is possible that systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression (including adrenal crisis) may appear in a small number of patients, particularly when budesonide is administered at higher than recommended doses over prolonged periods of time. If such effects occur, the dosage of PULMICORT FLEXHALER should be reduced slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for reducing systemic corticosteroids and for management of asthma symptoms.
Interactions with Strong Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors
Caution should be exercised when considering the coadministration of PULMICORT FLEXHALER with ketoconazole, and other known strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir, telithromycin) because adverse effects related to increased systemic exposure to budesonide may occur [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Reduction in Bone Mineral Density
Decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed with long-term administration of products containing inhaled corticosteroids. The clinical significance of small changes in BMD with regard to long-term consequences such as fracture is unknown. Patients with major risk factors for decreased bone mineral content, such as prolonged immobilization, family history of osteoporosis, post menopausal status, tobacco use, advance age, poor nutrition, or chronic use of drugs that can reduce bone mass (e.g, anticonvulsants, oral corticosteroids) should be monitored and treated with established standards of care.
Effect on Growth
Orally inhaled corticosteroids, including budesonide, may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Monitor the growth of pediatric patients receiving PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). To minimize the systemic effects of orally inhaled corticosteroids, including PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) , titrate each patient's dose to the lowest dosage that effectively controls his/her symptoms [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use in Specific Populations].
Glaucoma and Cataracts
Glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and cataracts have been reported following the long-term administration of inhaled corticosteroids, including budesonide. Therefore, close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts.
Paradoxical Bronchospasm and Upper Airway Symptoms
As with other inhaled asthma medications, PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs following dosing with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) , it should be treated immediately with an inhaled, short-acting beta2-bronchodilator. PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) should be discontinued immediately, and alternative therapy should be instituted.
Eosinophilic Conditions and Churg-Strauss Syndrome
In rare cases, patients on inhaled corticosteroids may present with systemic eosinophilic conditions. Some of these patients have clinical features of vasculitis consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome, a condition that is often treated with systemic corticosteroid therapy. These events usually, but not always, have been associated with the reduction and/or withdrawal of oral corticosteroid therapy following the introduction of inhaled corticosteroids. Physicians should be alert to eosinophilia, vasculitic rash, worsening pulmonary symptoms, cardiac complications, and/or neuropathy presenting in their patients. A causal relationship between budesonide and these underlying conditions has not been established.
Patient Counseling Information
Patients being treated with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) should receive the following information and instructions. This information is intended to aid the patient in the safe and effective use of the medication. It is not a disclosure of all possible adverse or intended effects. For proper use of PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) and to attain maximum improvement, the patient should read and follow the accompanying FDA Approved Patient Labeling.
Patients should be advised that localized infections with Candida albicans occurred in the mouth and pharynx in some patients. If oropharyngeal candidiasis develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e. oral) antifungal therapy while still continuing therapy with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) , but at times therapy with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) may need to be temporarily interrupted under close medical supervision. Rinsing the mouth after inhalation is advised. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Not for Acute Symptoms
PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) is not meant to relieve acute asthma symptoms and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist such as albuterol (The physician should provide that patient with such medication and instruct the patient in how it should be used.)
Patients should be instructed to notify their physician immediately if they experience any of the following:
- Decreasing effectiveness of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists
- Need for more inhalations than usual of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists
- Significant decrease in lung function as outlined by the physician
Patients should not stop therapy with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) without physician/provider guidance since symptoms may recur after discontinuation. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Hypersensitivity including Anaphylaxis
Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, rash, contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, and bronchospasm have been reported with use of PULMICORT FLEXHALER. Discontinue PULMICORT FLEXHALER if such reactions occur [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) contains small amounts of lactose, which contains trace levels of milk proteins. It is possible that cough, wheezing, or bronchospasm may occur in patients who have a severe milk protein allergy [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to consult their physician without delay. Patients should be informed of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis, fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections, or ocular herpes simplex [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Hypercorticism and Adrenal Suppression
Patients should be advised that PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) may cause systemic corticosteroid effects of hypercorticism and adrenal suppression. Additionally, patients should be instructed that deaths due to adrenal insufficiency have occurred during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids. Patients should taper slowly from systemic corticosteroids if transferring to PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Reduction in Bone Mineral Density
Patients who are at an increased risk for decreased BMD should be advised that the use of corticosteroids may pose an additional risk [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Reduced Growth Velocity
Patients should be informed that orally inhaled corticosteroids, including budesonide inhalation powder, may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Physicians should closely follow the growth of children and adolescents taking corticosteroids by any route [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids may increase the risk of some eye problems (cataracts or glaucoma); regular eye examinations should be considered [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients should be advised to use PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) at regular intervals, since its effectiveness depends on regular use. Maximum benefit may not be achieved for 1 to 2 weeks or longer after starting treatment. If symptoms do not improve in that time frame or if the condition worsens, patients should be instructed to contact their physician.
How to Use Pulmicort Flexhaler (budesonide inhalation powder)
Patients should be carefully instructed on the use of this drug product to assure optimal dose delivery. The patient may not sense the presence of any medication entering their lungs when inhaling from PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) . This lack of sensation does not mean that they did not get the medication. They should not repeat their inhalation even if they did not feel the medication when inhaling [see PATIENT INFORMATION].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a 104-week oral study in Sprague-Dawley rats, a statistically significant increase in the incidence of gliomas was observed in male rats receiving an oral dose of 50 mcg/kg/day (approximately 0.3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults and children 6 to 17 years of age respectively, on a mcg/m² basis). No tumorigenicity was seen in male rats at oral doses up to 25 mcg/kg (approximately 0.1 and 0.2 times, respectively, the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults and children 6 to 17 years of age, on a mcg/m² basis) and in female rats at oral doses up to 50 mc/kg (approximately 0.3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation doses in adults and children 6 to 17 years of age, respectively, on a mcg/m² basis). In two additional two-year studies in male Fischer and Sprague-Dawley rats, budesonide caused no gliomas at an oral dose of 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults and children 6 to 17 years of age, respectively, on a mcg/m² basis). However, in the male Sprague-Dawley rats, budesonide caused a statistically significant increase in the incidence of hepatocellular tumors at an oral dose of 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation doses in adults and children 6 to 17 years of age on a mcg/m² basis). The concurrent reference corticosteroids (prednisone and triamcinolone acetonide) in these two studies showed similar findings.
There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect when budesonide was administered orally for 91 weeks to mice at doses up to 200 mcg/kg/day (approximately 0.6 and 0.7 times, respectively the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults and children 6 to 17 years of age on a mcg/m² basis).
Budesonide was not mutagenic or clastogenic in six different test systems: Ames Salmonella/microsome plate test, mouse micronucleus test, mouse lymphoma test, chromosome aberration test in human lymphocytes, sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster, and DNA repair analysis in rat hepatocyte culture.
In rats, budesonide had no effect on fertility at subcutaneous doses up to 80 mcg/kg (approximately 0.5 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis).
At a subcutaneous dose of 20 mcg/kg/day (approximately 0.1 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis), decreases in maternal body weight gain, prenatal viability, and viability of the young at birth and during lactation were observed. No such effects were noted at 5 mcg/kg (approximately 0.03 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis).
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B
Studies of pregnant women, have not shown that inhaled budesonide increases the risk of abnormalities when administered during pregnancy. The results from a large population-based prospective cohort epidemiological study reviewing data from three Swedish registries covering approximately 99% of the pregnancies from 1995-1997 (i.e., Swedish Medical Birth Registry; Registry of Congenital Malformations; Child Cardiology Registry) indicate no increased risk for congenital malformations from the use of inhaled budesonide during early pregnancy. Congenital malformations were studied in 2014 infants born to mothers reporting the use of inhaled budesonide for asthma in early pregnancy (usually 10-12 weeks after the last menstrual period), the period when most major organ malformations occur. The rate of recorded congenital malformations was similar compared to the general population rate (3.8% vs. 3.5%, respectively). In addition, after exposure to inhaled budesonide, the number of infants born with orofacial clefts was similar to the expected number in the normal population (4 children vs. 3.3, respectively).
These same data were utilized in a second study bringing the total to 2534 infants whose mothers were exposed to inhaled budesonide. In this study, the rate of congenital malformations among infants whose mothers were exposed to inhaled budesonide during early pregnancy was not different from the rate for all newborn babies during the same period (3.6%).
Despite the animal findings, it would appear that the possibility of fetal harm is remote if the drug is used during pregnancy. Nevertheless, because the studies in humans cannot rule out the possibility of harm, PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
As with other glucocorticoids, budesonide produced fetal loss, decreased pup weight, and skeletal abnormalities at a subcutaneous dose in rabbits that was approximately 0.3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis and at a subcutaneous dose inrats that was approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis. No teratogenic or embryocidal effects were observed in rats when budesonide was administered by inhalation at doses up to approximately equivalent to the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mcg/m² basis.
Experience with oral corticosteroids since their introduction in pharmacologic as opposed to physiologic doses suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans.
Hypoadrenalism may occur in infants born of mothers receiving corticosteroids during pregnancy. Such infants should be carefully observed.
Budesonide, like other corticosteroids, is secreted in human milk. Data with budesonide delivered via dry powder inhaler indicates that the total daily oral dose of budesonide available in breast milk to the infant is approximately 0.3% to 1% of the dose inhaled by the mother [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Special Populations, Nursing Mothers]. No studies have been conducted in breastfeeding women specifically with PULMICORT FLEXHALER; however, the dose of budesonide available to the infant in breast milk, as a percentage of the maternal dose, would be expected to be similar. PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) should be used in nursing women only if clinically appropriate. Prescribers should weigh the known benefits of breastfeeding for the mother and the infant against the potential risks of minimal budesonide exposure in the infant. Dosing considerations include prescription or titration to the lowest clinically effective dose and use of PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) immediately after breastfeeding to maximize the time interval between dosing and breastfeeding to minimize infant exposure. However, in general, PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) use should not delay or interfere with infant feeding.
In a 12-week pivotal study, 204 patients 6 to 17 years of age were treated with PULMICORT FLEXHALER twice daily [see Clinical Studies]. Efficacy results in this age group were similar to those observed in patients 18 years and older. There were no obvious differences in the type or frequency of adverse events reported in this age group compared with patients 18 years of age and older.
The safety and effectiveness of PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) in asthma patients below 6 years of age have not been established.
Controlled clinical studies have shown that orally inhaled corticosteroids, including budesonide, may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. This effect has been observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA-axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with orally inhaled corticosteroids including the impact on final adult height are unknown. The potential for “catch up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with orally inhaled corticosteroids has not been adequately studied.
In a study of asthmatic children 5-12 years of age, those treated with inhaled budesonide via a different PULMICORT dry powder inhaler 200 mcg twice daily (n=311) had a 1.1centimeter reduction in growth compared with those receiving placebo (n=418) at the end of one year; the difference between these two treatment groups did not increase further over three years of additional treatment. By the end of four years, children treated with a different PULMICORT dry powder inhaler and children treated with placebo had similar growth velocities. Conclusions drawn from this study may be confounded by the unequal use of corticosteroids in the treatment groups and inclusion of data from patients attaining puberty during the course of the study.
The administration of inhaled budesonide via a different PULMICORT dry-powder inhaler in doses up to 800 mcg/day (mean daily dose 445 mcg/day) or via a pressurized metered-dose inhaler in doses up to 1200 mcg/day (mean daily dose 620 mcg/day) to 216 pediatric patients (age 3 to 11 years) for 2 to 6 years had no significant effect on statural growth compared with non-corticosteroid therapy in 62 matched control patients. However, the long-term effect of inhaled budesonide on growth is not fully known.
The growth of pediatric patients receiving orally inhaled corticosteroids, including PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) , should be monitored (eg, via stadiometry). If a child or adolescent on any corticosteroid appears to have growth suppression, the possibility that he/she is particularly sensitive to this effect should be considered. The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against clinical benefits obtained. To minimize the systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids, including PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) , each patient should be titrated to the lowest dose that effectively controls his/her asthma [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Of the total number of patients in controlled clinical studies receiving inhaled budesonide, 153 (n=11 treated with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) ) were 65 years of age or older and one was age 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety were observed between these patients and younger patients. Clinical studies did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine differences in efficacy between elderly and younger patients. Other reported clinical or medical surveillance experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Formal pharmacokinetic studies using PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) have not been conducted in patients with hepatic impairment. However, since budesonide is predominantly cleared by hepatic metabolism, impairment of liver function may lead to accumulation of budesonide in the plasma. Therefore, patients with hepatic disease should be closely monitored.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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