Pulmonary Hypertension (cont.)
George Schiffman, MD, FCCP
Dr. Schiffman received his B.S. degree with High Honors in biology from Hobart College in 1976. He then moved to Chicago where he studied biochemistry at the University of Illinois, Chicago Circle. He attended Rush Medical College where he received his M.D. degree in 1982 and was elected to the Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society. He completed his Internal Medicine internship and residency at the University of California, Irvine.
Siamak N. Nabili, MD, MPH
Dr. Nabili received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), majoring in chemistry and biochemistry. He then completed his graduate degree at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His graduate training included a specialized fellowship in public health where his research focused on environmental health and health-care delivery and management.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What are pulmonary arteries?
- What is pulmonary hypertension?
- What are primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension?
- What causes pulmonary hypertension?
- What causes primary pulmonary hypertension?
- How common is pulmonary hypertension?
- What are the signs and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension?
- How is pulmonary hypertension diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for pulmonary hypertension?
- What is the life expectancy for pulmonary hypertension?
- Find a local Cardiologist in your town
What causes primary pulmonary hypertension?
Primary pulmonary hypertension has no identifiable underlying cause. Primary pulmonary hypertension is also referred to as idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Primary pulmonary hypertension is more common in young people and more common in females than males.
Primary pulmonary hypertension is an unusually aggressive and often fatal form of pulmonary hypertension. Whereas it is known that the arterial obstruction is caused by a building up of the smooth muscle cells that line the arteries, the underlying cause of the disease has long been a mystery.
A genetic cause of the familial form of primary pulmonary hypertension has been discovered. It is caused by mutations in a gene called BMPR2. BMPR2 encodes a receptor (a transforming growth factor beta type II receptor) that sits on the surface of cells and binds molecules of the TGF-beta superfamily. Binding triggers conformational changes that are shunted down into the cell's interior where a series of biochemical reactions occur, ultimately affecting the cell's behavior. The mutations block this process. This discovery may provide a means of genetic diagnosis and a potential target for the therapy of people with familial (and possibly also sporadic) primary pulmonary hypertension.
How common is pulmonary hypertension?
There are no clear statistical data on the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Since pulmonary hypertension is seen in multiple different conditions, it is perhaps better to look at the prevalence in each condition. It is fairly common in patients with heart failure, COPD, and sleep apnea. It occurs in 7% to 12% of patients with collagen vascular disease and in less than 5% of HIV patients.
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