"Feb. 25, 2013 (San Antonio, Texas) -- The asthma drug Xolair appears to be a safe and effective treatment for chronic hives, a new study shows.
The results of the study were presented at a news conference here at the American Academy"...
Local Nasal Effects
Nasal Discomfort, Epistaxis, and Nasal Ulceration
In clinical trials of 2 to 52 weeks duration, epistaxis and nasal ulcerations were observed more frequently and some epistaxis events were more severe in patients treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol than those who received placebo. In the 52-week safety trial in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, nasal erosions were identified in 4 of 415 patients and a nasal ulceration was identified in 1 of 415 patients treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. No nasal erosions or ulcerations were reported for patients who received placebo. In clinical trials conducted in pediatric patients ages 4 to 11 years, the local nasal effect was similar to those reported in patients 12 years of age and older. Patients using QNASL Nasal Aerosol over several months or longer should be examined periodically for possible changes in the nasal mucosa. If an adverse reaction (e.g., erosion, ulceration) is noted, discontinue QNASL Nasal Aerosol.[see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In previous clinical trials with an aqueous formulation of beclomethasone dipropionate administered intranasally, localized infections of the nose and pharynx with Candida albicans had been reported. There were no instances of similar infections observed in clinical trials with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. If such an infection develops, it may require treatment with appropriate local therapy and discontinuation of QNASL Nasal Aerosol treatment. Thus, patients using QNASL Nasal Aerosol over several months or longer should be examined periodically for evidence of Candida infection.
Nasal Septal Perforation
Instances of nasal septal perforation have been reported in patients following the intranasal application of beclomethasone dipropionate. There were no nasal septal perforations reported during clinical trials in the indicated dose of QNASL 80 mcg Nasal Aerosol administered as 320 mcg once daily in adults and adolescents. There was one report of nasal septal perforation observed in the dose-ranging pediatric clinical trial.
Impaired Wound Healing
Because of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing, patients who have experienced recent nasal septal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use QNASL Nasal Aerosol until healing has occurred.
Glaucoma And Cataracts
Use of intranasal and inhaled corticosteroids may result in the development of glaucoma and/or cataracts. Therefore, close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts.
Glaucoma and cataract formation was evaluated with ocular assessments that included intraocular pressure measurements and slit lamp examinations in 245 adolescent and adult patients (12 years of age and older) with perennial allergic rhinitis who were treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol 320 mcg daily (N=197) or placebo (N=48) for up to 52 weeks. In 94% of patients, intraocular pressure (IOP) remained within the normal range ( < 21 mmHg) during the treatment portion of the trial. There were 10 patients (5%) treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol and 1 patient (2%) treated with placebo that had intraocular pressure that increased above normal levels ( ≥ 21 mmHg) and greater than baseline during the treatment portion of the trial. Two of these occurrences in patients treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol were reported as adverse reactions, one serious. No instances of cataract formation or other clinically significant ocular incidents were reported in this 52-week safety trial.[see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis
Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, and rash have been reported following administration of beclomethasone dipropionate nasally administered and inhalationally administered products. Angioedema, urticaria, and rash have been reported following administration of QNASL Nasal Aerosol. Discontinue QNASL Nasal Aerosol if any such reactions occur [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Persons who are using drugs that suppress the immune system (e.g., corticosteroids) are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If a patient is exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If a patient is exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated (see the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information). If chickenpox or measles develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
Corticosteroids should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculous infections of the respiratory tract, untreated local or systemic fungal or bacterial infections, systemic viral or parasitic infections, or ocular herpes simplex because of the potential for worsening of these infections.
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Effect
When intranasal steroids are used at higher-than-recommended dosages or in susceptible individuals at recommended dosages, systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression may appear. If such changes occur, the dosage of QNASL Nasal Aerosol should be discontinued slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for discontinuing oral corticosteroid therapy.
The replacement of a systemic corticosteroid with a topical corticosteroid can be accompanied by signs of adrenal insufficiency. In addition, some patients may experience symptoms of corticosteroid withdrawal (e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression). Patients previously treated for prolonged periods with systemic corticosteroids and transferred to topical corticosteroids should be carefully monitored for acute adrenal insufficiency in response to stress. In patients who have asthma or other clinical conditions requiring long-term systemic corticosteroid treatment, rapid decreases in systemic corticosteroid dosages may cause a severe exacerbation of their symptoms.
Effect On Growth
Corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Routinely monitor the growth of pediatric patients receiving QNASL Nasal Aerosol [see Use in Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling accompanying the product.
Local Nasal Effects
Inform patients that treatment with QNASL Nasal Aerosol may lead to adverse reactions, including epistaxis, nasal ulceration, and nasal discomfort. Candida infection may also occur with treatment with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. In addition, nasal beclomethasone dipropionate products are known to be associated with nasal septal perforation and impaired wound healing. Patients who have experienced recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use QNASL Nasal Aerosol until healing has occurred [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Cataracts And Glaucoma
Inform patients that glaucoma and cataracts are associated with nasal and inhaled corticosteroid use. Patients should inform their health care providers if a change in vision is noted while using QNASL Nasal Aerosol [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis
Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, and rash have been reported following administration of beclomethasone dipropionate nasally administered and inhalationally administered products. Angioedema, urticaria, and rash have been reported following administration of QNASL Nasal Aerosol. If any such reactions occur, patients should discontinue use of QNASL Nasal Aerosol [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to consult their physician without delay. Patients should be informed of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis; fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Use Daily For Best Effect
Patients should use QNASL Nasal Aerosol on a regular, once-daily basis since its effectiveness depends on its regular use. QNASL Nasal Aerosol may not have an immediate effect on rhinitis symptoms. The patient should not increase the prescribed dosage but should contact their physician if symptoms do not improve or if the condition worsens.
Keep Spray Out Of Eyes Or Mouth
Patients should be informed to avoid spraying QNASL Nasal Aerosol in their eyes or mouth.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
The carcinogenicity of beclomethasone dipropionate was evaluated in rats that were exposed for a total of 95 weeks: 13 weeks at inhalation doses up to 0.4 mg/kg and the remaining 82 weeks at combined oral and inhalation doses up to 2.4 mg/kg. In this trial, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity at the highest dose: approximately 70 and 120 times the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) in adults and children, respectively, on a mg/m² basis.
Beclomethasone dipropionate did not induce gene mutation in bacterial cells or mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro. No significant clastogenic effect was seen in cultured CHO cells in vitro or in the mouse micronucleus test in vivo.
In rats, beclomethasone dipropionate caused decreased conception rates at an oral dose of 16 mg/kg (approximately 490 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m² basis). There was no significant effect of beclomethasone dipropionate on fertility in rats at oral doses of 1.6 mg/kg (approximately 50 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m² basis). Inhibition of the estrous cycle in dogs was observed following oral doses of 0.5 mg/kg (approximately 50 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m² basis). No inhibition of the estrous cycle in dogs was seen following 12 months of exposure at an estimated inhalation dose of 0.33 mg/kg (approximately 35 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m² basis).
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical trials in pregnant women treated with QNASL Nasal Aerosol. Beclomethasone dipropionate was teratogenic and embryocidal in the mouse and rabbit although these effects were not observed in rats. QNASL Nasal Aerosol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Experience with oral corticosteroids since their introduction in pharmacologic, as opposed to physiologic, doses suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans.
Beclomethasone dipropionate administered subcutaneously was teratogenic and embryocidal in the mouse and rabbit at doses approximately twice the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) in adults (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses of 0.1 and 0.025 mg/kg/day in mice and rabbits, respectively). No teratogenicity or embryocidal effects were seen in rats at approximately 460 times MRHDID (in adults on a mg/m² basis at a maternal inhalation dose of 15 mg/kg/day).
Hypoadrenalism may occur in infants born of mothers receiving corticosteroids during pregnancy. Such infants should be carefully monitored.
It is not known whether beclomethasone dipropionate is excreted in human breast milk. However, other corticosteroids have been detected in human breast milk and thus caution should be exercised when QNASL Nasal Aerosol is administered to a nursing mother.
The safety and effectiveness of QNASL Nasal Aerosol in children 4 years and older have been established [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Clinical Studies]. The safety and effectiveness of QNASL Nasal Aerosol in children younger than 4 years of age have not been established. Controlled pediatric clinical trials with QNASL Nasal Aerosol included 909 children 4 to 11 years of age and 188 adolescent patients 12 to 17 years of age [see Clinical Studies].
Controlled clinical trials have shown that intranasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. This effect has been observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA-axis function. The long-term effects of reduction in growth velocity associated with intranasal corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for “catch-up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of pediatric patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids, including QNASL Nasal Aerosol, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry).
A 12–month, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluated the effects of QVAR®, an orally inhaled HFA beclomethasone dipropionate product, without spacer versus chlorofluorocarbon-propelled (CFC) beclomethasone dipropionate with large volume spacer on growth in children with asthma ages 5 to 11 years. A total of 520 patients were enrolled, of whom 394 received HFA-beclomethasone dipropionate (100 to 400 mcg/day ex-valve) and 126 received CFCbeclomethasone dipropionate (200 to 800 mcg/day ex-valve). When comparing results at month 12 to baseline, the mean growth velocity in children treated with HFA-beclomethasone dipropionate was approximately 0.5 cm/year less than that noted with children treated with CFCbeclomethasone dipropionate via large volume spacer. The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained and the risks/benefits of treatment alternatives.
The potential for QNASL Nasal Aerosol to cause reduction in growth velocity in susceptible patients or when given at higher than recommended dosages cannot be ruled out.
Clinical trials of QNASL Nasal Aerosol did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and older to determine whether they responded differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, administration to elderly patients should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/5/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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