"Researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) have found a unique cell type that, in tests on mice, can protect against uveitis—a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the eye and can cause vision loss.
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In patients receiving systemically administered quinolones, including levofloxacin, serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported, some following the first dose. Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, angioedema, (including laryngeal, pharyngeal or facial edema), airway obstruction, dyspnea, urticaria and itching. If allergic reaction to levofloxacin occurs, discontinue the drug. Serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require immediate emergency treatment. Oxygen and airway management should be administered as clinically indicated.
Growth Of Resistant Organisms With Prolonged Use
As with other anti-infectives, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, discontinue use and institute alternative therapy. Whenever clinical judgment dictates, the patient should be examined with the aid of magnification, such as slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and where appropriate, fluorescein staining.
Avoidance Of Contact Lens Wear
Patients should be advised not to wear contact lenses if they have signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In a long term carcinogenicity study in rats, levofloxacin exhibited no carcinogenic or tumorigenic potential following daily dietary administration for 2 years at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day, corresponding to plasma levels that were 1235 times the maximum clinical exposure, based on Cmax.
Levofloxacin was not mutagenic in the following assays: Ames bacterial mutation assay (S. typhimurium and E. coli), CHO/HGPRT forward mutation assay, mouse micronucleus test, mouse dominant lethal test, rat unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, and the in vivo mouse sister chromatid exchange assay. It was positive in the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CHL cell line) and in vitro sister chromatid exchange (CHL/IU cell line) assays. Levofloxacin caused no impairment of fertility or reproduction in rats at oral doses as high as 360 mg/kg/day, at which systemic exposure was estimated to be 23,000 times that at the maximum recommended human ophthalmic dose.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Levofloxacin at oral doses of 810 mg/kg/day in rats caused decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality. No teratogenic effect was observed when rabbits were dosed orally as high as 50 mg/kg/day, at which systemic exposure was approximately 2,250 times that observed at the maximum recommended human ophthalmic dose, or when dosed intravenously as high as 25 mg/kg/day, at which systemic exposure was approximately 1000 times that observed at the maximum recommended human ophthalmic dose.
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Levofloxacin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Levofloxacin has not been measured in human milk. Based upon data from ofloxacin, it can be presumed that levofloxacin is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when QUIXIN® is administered to a nursing mother.
Safety and effectiveness in children below the age of six years have not been established. Oral administration of systemic quinolones has been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals. There is no evidence that the ophthalmic administration of levofloxacin has any effect on weight bearing joints.
No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patients.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/19/2014
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