"Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to two population-based analyses published online January 11 in JAMA Internal Medicine. The authors suggest the widely used drugs "...
(sirolimus) Oral Solution and Tablets
IMMUNOSUPPRESSION, USE IS NOT RECOMMENDED IN LIVER OR LUNG TRANSPLANT PATIENTS
- Increased susceptibility to infection and the possible development of lymphoma and other malignancies may result from immunosuppression
Increased susceptibility to infection and the possible development of lymphoma may result from immunosuppression. Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressive therapy and management of renal transplant patients should use Rapamune® for prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving renal transplants. Patients receiving the drug should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical resources. The physician responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- The safety and efficacy of Rapamune (sirolimus) as immunosuppressive therapy have not been established in liver or lung transplant patients, and therefore, such use is not recommended [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Liver Transplantation – Excess Mortality, Graft Loss, and Hepatic Artery Thrombosis (HAT)
The use of Rapamune in combination with tacrolimus was associated with excess mortality and graft loss in a study in de novo liver transplant patients. Many of these patients had evidence of infection at or near the time of death.
In this and another study in de novo liver transplant patients, the use of Rapamune in combination with cyclosporine or tacrolimus was associated with an increase in HAT; most cases of HAT occurred within 30 days post-transplantation and most led to graft loss or death [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Lung Transplantation – Bronchial Anastomotic Dehiscence
Cases of bronchial anastomotic dehiscence, most fatal, have been reported in de novo lung transplant patients when Rapamune has been used as part of an immunosuppressive regimen [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Rapamune (sirolimus) is an immunosuppressive agent. Sirolimus is a macrocyclic lactone produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The chemical name of sirolimus (also known as rapamycin) is (3S,6R,7E,9R,10R,12R,14S,15E,17E,19E,21S,23S,26R,27R,34aS)9,10,12,13,14,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,32,33,34, 34a-hexadecahydro-9,27-dihydroxy-3-[(1R)-2[(1S,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycyclohexyl]-1-methylethyl]-10,21-dimethoxy6,8,12,14,20,26-hexamethyl-23,27-epoxy-3H-pyrido[2,1-c][1,4] oxaazacyclohentriacontine1,5,11,28,29 (4H,6H,31H)-pentone. Its molecular formula is C51H79NO13 and its molecular weight is 914.2. The structural formula of sirolimus is illustrated as follows.
Sirolimus is a white to off-white powder and is insoluble in water, but freely soluble in benzyl alcohol, chloroform, acetone, and acetonitrile.
Rapamune is available for administration as an oral solution containing 1 mg/mL sirolimus. Rapamune is also available as a tan, triangular-shaped tablet containing 0.5 mg sirolimus, as a white, triangular-shaped tablet containing 1 mg sirolimus, and as a yellow-to-beige triangular-shaped tablet containing 2 mg sirolimus.
The inactive ingredients in Rapamune Oral Solution are Phosal 50 PG® (phosphatidylcholine, propylene glycol, mono-and di-glycerides, ethanol, soy fatty acids, and ascorbyl palmitate) and polysorbate 80. Rapamune Oral Solution contains 1.5% -2.5% ethanol.
The inactive ingredients in Rapamune Tablets include sucrose, lactose, polyethylene glycol 8000, calcium sulfate, microcrystalline cellulose, pharmaceutical glaze, talc, titanium dioxide, magnesium stearate, povidone, poloxamer 188, polyethylene glycol 20,000, glyceryl monooleate, carnauba wax, dl-alpha tocopherol, and other ingredients. The 0.5 mg and 2 mg dosage strengths also contain yellow iron (ferric) oxide and brown iron (ferric) oxide.
What are the possible side effects of sirolimus (Rapamune)?
Sirolimus may cause a serious viral infection of the brain that can lead to disability or death. This risk is higher if you have a weak immune system or are receiving certain medicines. Call your doctor right away if you have any change in your mental state, problems with speech or walking, or decreased vision. These symptoms may start gradually and get worse quickly.
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor at once if you have a serious...
What are the precautions when taking sirolimus (Rapamune)?
Before taking sirolimus, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other macrolide medications (e.g., tacrolimus, erythromycin); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, kidney disease, high cholesterol/triglyceride levels, any recent/current infections, cancer.
This medication may increase your risk of developing skin cancer. Avoid prolonged sun exposure, tanning booths, and sunlamps. Use a sunscreen with a high protection factor and wear protective clothing when outdoors.
Do not have...
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/30/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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