William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
- Raynaud's phenomenon facts
- What is Raynaud's phenomenon?
- What causes Raynaud's phenomenon?
- What conditions have been associated with Raynaud's phenomenon?
- What are Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms and signs?
- How is Raynaud's phenomenon diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for Raynaud's phenomenon?
- What is the prognosis (outlook) for Raynaud's phenomenon?
- Can Raynaud's phenomenon by prevented?
- Patient Comments: Raynaud's Phenomenon - Describe Your Experience
- Patient Comments: Raynaud's Phenomenon - Treatments
- Patient Comments: Raynaud's Phenomenon -Symptoms
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Raynaud's phenomenon facts
- Raynaud's phenomenon is characterized by a pale to blue to red sequence of color changes of the digits, most commonly after exposure to cold.
- Raynaud's phenomenon occurs because of spasm of blood vessels.
- The cause of Raynaud's phenomenon is unknown, although abnormal nerve control of blood-vessel diameter and nerve sensitivity to cold are suspected of being involved.
- Symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon depend on the severity, frequency, and duration of the blood-vessel spasm.
- There is no blood test for diagnosing Raynaud's phenomenon.
- Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon involves protection of the digits, medications, and avoiding emotional stresses, smoking, cold temperature, and tools that vibrate the hands.
What is Raynaud's phenomenon?
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a condition resulting in a particular series of discolorations of the fingers and/or the toes after exposure to changes in temperature (cold or hot) or emotional events. Skin discoloration occurs because an abnormal spasm of the blood vessels causes a diminished blood supply to the local tissues. Initially, the digit(s) involved turn white because of the diminished blood supply. The digit(s) then turn blue because of prolonged lack of oxygen. Finally, the blood vessels reopen, causing a local "flushing" phenomenon, which turns the digit(s) red. This three-phase color sequence (white to blue to red), most often upon exposure to cold temperature, is characteristic of RP.
Raynaud's phenomenon most frequently affects women, especially in the second, third, or fourth decades of life. People can have Raynaud's phenomenon alone or as a part of other rheumatic diseases. Raynaud's phenomenon in children is essentially identical to Raynaud's phenomenon in adults. When it occurs alone, it is referred to as "Raynaud's disease" or primary Raynaud's phenomenon. When it accompanies other diseases, it is called secondary Raynaud's phenomenon.
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