Raynaud's Phenomenon (cont.)
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Raynaud's phenomenon facts
- What is Raynaud's phenomenon?
- What causes Raynaud's phenomenon?
- What conditions have been associated with Raynaud's phenomenon?
- What are Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms and signs?
- How is Raynaud's phenomenon diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for Raynaud's phenomenon?
- What is the prognosis (outlook) for Raynaud's phenomenon?
- Can Raynaud's phenomenon by prevented?
- Find a local Rheumatologist in your town
What is the prognosis (outlook) for Raynaud's phenomenon?
The outlook for those affected by Raynaud's phenomenon depends on its severity and whether or not there is associated underlying medical illness. Most people affected by Raynaud's phenomenon do very well in response to simple measures, with or without medications.
Can Raynaud's phenomenon by prevented?
Raynaud's phenomenon can be prevented by avoiding the precipitating factors, such as cold or heat exposure, etc.
Certain medications should be avoided. Medications that can aggravate symptoms of RP by leading to increased blood-vessel spasm include over-the-counter cold and weight-control preparations, such as pseudoephedrine (Actifed, Chlor-Trimeton, CoTylenol, and Sudafed). Beta blockers, medicines used for high blood pressure and heart disease, can also worsen RP. These include atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor), nadolol (Corgard), and propranolol.
Researchers have reported finding a substantial genetic (inherited) contribution both to the symptoms of RP and to the associated blood-vessel changes of patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.
Other researchers are studying nitric oxide and its potential relationship to Raynaud's phenomenon. A gel is being studied which might promote local production of nitric oxide in involved digits. The local nitric oxide, it seems, may open the blood vessels and improve the impaired circulation.
For further information about Raynaud's phenomenon, please visit the following site:
The Arthritis Foundation (http://www.arthritis.org)
Or you can write to:
The Arthritis Foundation
PO Box 19000
Atlanta, Georgia 30326
Medically reviewed by Kirkwood Johnston, MD; American Board of Internal Medicine with subspecialty in Rheumatology
Fauci, Anthony S., et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2008.
Koopman, William, et al., eds. Clinical Primer of Rheumatology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.
Ruddy, Shaun, et al., eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2001.
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