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Razadyne ER

Razadyne ER

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Although the etiology of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not fully understood, it has been reported that acetylcholine-producing neurons degenerate in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The degree of this cholinergic loss has been correlated with degree of cognitive impairment and density of amyloid plaques (a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease).

Galantamine, a tertiary alkaloid, is a competitive and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. While the precise mechanism of galantamine's action is unknown, it is postulated to exert its therapeutic effect by enhancing cholinergic function. This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by cholinesterase. If this mechanism is correct, galantamine's effect may lessen as the disease process advances and fewer cholinergic neurons remain functionally intact. There is no evidence that galantamine alters the course of the underlying dementing process.

Pharmacokinetics

Galantamine is well absorbed with absolute oral bioavailability of about 90%. It has a terminal elimination half-life of about 7 hours and pharmacokinetics are linear over the range of 8-32 mg/day.

The maximum inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity of about 40% was achieved about one hour after a single oral dose of 8 mg galantamine in healthy male subjects.

Absorption and Distribution

Galantamine is rapidly and completely absorbed with time to peak concentration about 1 hour. Bioavailability of the tablet was the same as the bioavailability of an oral solution. Food did not affect the AUC of galantamine but Cmax decreased by 25% and Tmax was delayed by 1.5 hours. The mean volume of distribution of galantamine is 175 L.

The plasma protein binding of galantamine is 18% at therapeutically relevant concentrations. In whole blood, galantamine is mainly distributed to blood cells (52.7%). The blood to plasma concentration ratio of galantamine is 1.2.

Metabolism and Elimination

Galantamine is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, glucuronidated, and excreted unchanged in the urine. In vitro studies indicate that cytochrome CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were the major cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in the metabolism of galantamine, and inhibitors of both pathways increase oral bioavailability of galantamine modestly [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. O-demethylation, mediated by CYP2D6 was greater in extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 than in poor metabolizers. In plasma from both poor and extensive metabolizers, however, unchanged galantamine and its glucuronide accounted for most of the sample radioactivity.

In studies of oral 3H-galantamine, unchanged galantamine and its glucuronide, accounted for most plasma radioactivity in poor and extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers. Up to 8 hours post-dose, unchanged galantamine accounted for 39-77% of the total radioactivity in the plasma, and galantamine glucuronide for 14-24%. By 7 days, 93-99% of the radioactivity had been recovered, with about 95% in urine and about 5% in the feces. Total urinary recovery of unchanged galantamine accounted for, on average, 32% of the dose and that of galantamine glucuronide for another 12% on average.

After i.v. or oral administration, about 20% of the dose was excreted as unchanged galantamine in the urine in 24 hours, representing a renal clearance of about 65 mL/min, about 20-25% of the total plasma clearance of about 300 mL/min.

RAZADYNE® ER 24 mg Extended-Release Capsules administered once daily under fasting conditions are bioequivalent to RAZADYNE® Tablets 12mg twice daily with respect to AUC24h and Cmin. The Cmax and Tmax of the extended-release capsules were lower and occurred later, respectively, compared with the immediate-release tablets, with Cmax about 25% lower and median Tmax occurring about 4.5 – 5.0 hours after dosing. Dose-proportionality is observed for RAZADYNE® ER Extended-Release Capsules over the dose range of 8 to 24 mg daily and steady state is achieved within a week. There was no effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of RAZADYNE® ER Extended-Release Capsules. CYP2D6 poor metabolizers had drug exposures that were approximately 50% higher than for extensive metabolizers.

There are no appreciable differences in pharmacokinetic parameters when RAZADYNE® ER Extended-Release Capsules are given with food compared to when they are given in the fasted state.

Specific Populations

CYP2D6 Poor Metabolizers

Approximately 7% of the normal population has a genetic variation that leads to reduced levels of activity of CYP2D6 isozyme. Such individuals have been referred to as poor metabolizers. After a single oral dose of 4 mg or 8 mg galantamine, CYP2D6 poor metabolizers demonstrated a similar Cmax and about 35% AUC∞ increase of unchanged galantamine compared to extensive metabolizers.

A total of 356 patients with Alzheimer's disease enrolled in two Phase 3 studies were genotyped with respect to CYP2D6 (n=210 hetero-extensive metabolizers, 126 homo-extensive metabolizers, and 20 poor metabolizers). Population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that there was a 25% decrease in median clearance in poor metabolizers compared to extensive metabolizers. Dosage adjustment is not necessary in patients identified as poor metabolizers as the dose of drug is individually titrated to tolerability.

Hepatic Impairment

Following a single 4 mg dose of galantamine tablets, the pharmacokinetics of galantamine in subjects with mild hepatic impairment (n=8; Child-Pugh score of 5-6) were similar to those in healthy subjects. In patients with moderate hepatic impairment (n=8; Child Pugh score of 7-9), galantamine clearance was decreased by about 25% compared to normal volunteers. Exposure would be expected to increase further with increasing degree of hepatic impairment [see Use In Specific Populations and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Renal Impairment

Following a single 8 mg dose of galantamine tablets, AUC increased by 37% and 67% in moderate and severely renal-impaired patients compared to normal volunteers [see Use In Specific Populations and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Elderly

Data from clinical trials in patients with Alzheimer's disease indicate that galantamine concentrations are 30-40% higher than in healthy young subjects.

Gender and Race

No specific pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effect of gender and race on the disposition of galantamine, but a population pharmacokinetic analysis indicates (n= 539 males and 550 females) that galantamine clearance is about 20% lower in females than in males (explained by lower body weight in females) and race (n=1029 White, 24 Black, 13 Asian and 23 other) did not affect the clearance of galantamine.

Drug-Drug Interactions

Multiple metabolic pathways and renal excretion are involved in the elimination of galantamine so no single pathway appears predominant. Based on in vitro studies, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were the major enzymes involved in the metabolism of galantamine. CYP2D6 was involved in the formation of O-desmethyl-galantamine, whereas CYP3A4 mediated the formation of galantamine-N-oxide. Galantamine is also glucuronidated and excreted unchanged in urine.

Effect of Other Drugs on the Metabolism of Galantamine

Drugs that are potent inhibitors for CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 may increase the AUC of galantamine. Multiple dose pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the AUC of galantamine increased 30% and 40%, respectively, during coadministration of ketoconazole and paroxetine. As co-administered with erythromycin, another CYP3A4 inhibitor, the galantamine AUC increased only 10%. Population pharmacokinetics analysis with a database of 852 patients with Alzheimer's disease showed that the clearance of galantamine was decreased about 25-33% by concurrent administration of amitriptyline (n=17), fluoxetine (n=48), fluvoxamine (n=14), and quinidine (n=7), known inhibitors of CYP2D6.

Concurrent administration of H2-antagonists demonstrated that ranitidine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of galantamine, and cimetidine increased the galantamine AUC by approximately 16%.

A multiple dose pharmacokinetic study with concurrent administration of memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, demonstrated that co-administration of memantine in a dose of 10 mg BID did not affect the pharmacokinetic profile of galantamine (16 mg daily) at steady state.

Effect of Galantamine on the Metabolism of Other Drugs

In vitro studies show that galantamine did not inhibit the metabolic pathways catalyzed by CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP4A, CYP2C, CYP2D6 or CYP2E1. This indicates that the inhibitory potential of galantamine towards the major forms of cytochrome P450 is very low. Multiple doses of galantamine (24 mg/day) had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin and warfarin (R- and S- forms). Galantamine had no effect on the increased prothrombin time induced by warfarin.

Clinical Studies

The effectiveness of galantamine as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease is demonstrated by the results of 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical investigations in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, 4 with the immediate-release tablet and 1 with the extended-release capsule [diagnosed by NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, with Mini-Mental State Examination scores that were ≥ 10 and ≤ 24]. Doses studied with the tablet formulation were 8-32 mg/day given as twice daily doses. In 3 of the 4 studies with the tablet, patients were started on a low dose of 8 mg, then titrated weekly by 8 mg/day to 24 or 32 mg as assigned. In the fourth study (USA 4-week Dose Escalation Fixed-Dose Study) dose escalation of 8 mg/day occurred over 4-week intervals. The mean age of patients participating in these 4 galantamine trials was 75 years with a range of 41 to 100. Approximately 62% of patients were women and 38% were men. The racial distribution was White 94%, Black 3% and other races 3%. Two other studies examined a three times daily dosing regimen; these also showed or suggested benefit but did not suggest an advantage over twice daily dosing.

Study Outcome Measures

In each study, the primary effectiveness of galantamine was evaluated using a dual outcome assessment strategy as measured by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) and the Clinician's Interview Based Impression of Change that required the use of caregiver information (CIBIC-plus).

The ability of galantamine to improve cognitive performance was assessed with the cognitive sub-scale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog), a multi-item instrument that has been extensively validated in longitudinal cohorts of Alzheimer's disease patients. The ADAS-cog examines selected aspects of cognitive performance including elements of memory, orientation, attention, reasoning, language and praxis. The ADAS-cog scoring range is from 0 to 70, with higher scores indicating greater cognitive impairment. Elderly normal adults may score as low as 0 or 1, but it is not unusual for non-demented adults to score slightly higher.

The patients recruited as participants in each study using the tablet formulation had mean scores on ADAS-cog of approximately 27 units, with a range from 5 to 69. Experience gained in longitudinal studies of ambulatory patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease suggests that they gain 6 to 12 units a year on the ADAS-cog. Lesser degrees of change, however, are seen in patients with very mild or very advanced disease because the ADAS-cog is not uniformly sensitive to change over the course of the disease. The annualized rate of decline in the placebo patients participating in galantamine trials was approximately 4.5 units per year.

The ability of galantamine to produce an overall clinical effect was assessed using a Clinician's Interview Based Impression of Change that required the use of caregiver information, the CIBIC-plus. The CIBIC-plus is not a single instrument and is not a standardized instrument like the ADAS-cog. Clinical trials for investigational drugs have used a variety of CIBIC formats, each different in terms of depth and structure. As such, results from a CIBIC-plus reflect clinical experience from the trial or trials in which it was used and cannot be compared directly with the results of CIBIC-plus evaluations from other clinical trials. The CIBIC-plus used in the trials was a semi-structured instrument based on a comprehensive evaluation at baseline and subsequent time-points of 4 major areas of patient function: general, cognitive, behavioral and activities of daily living. It represents the assessment of a skilled clinician based on his/her observation at an interview with the patient, in combination with information supplied by a caregiver familiar with the behavior of the patient over the interval rated. The CIBIC-plus is scored as a seven point categorical rating, ranging from a score of 1, indicating “markedly improved,” to a score of 4, indicating “no change” to a score of 7, indicating “marked worsening.” The CIBIC-plus has not been systematically compared directly to assessments not using information from caregivers (CIBIC) or other global methods.

Immediate-Release Tablets

U.S. Twenty-One Week Fixed-Dose Study

In a study of 21 weeks duration, 978 patients were randomized to doses of 8, 16, or 24 mg of galantamine per day, or to placebo, each given in 2 divided doses. Treatment was initiated at 8 mg/day for all patients randomized to galantamine, and increased by 8 mg/day every 4 weeks. Therefore, the maximum titration phase was 8 weeks and the minimum maintenance phase was 13 weeks (in patients randomized to 24 mg/day of galantamine).

Effects on the ADAS-cog

Figure 1 illustrates the time course for the change from baseline in ADAS-cog scores for all four dose groups over the 21 weeks of the study. At 21 weeks of treatment, the mean differences in the ADAS-cog change scores for the galantamine-treated patients compared to the patients on placebo were 1.7, 3.3, and 3.6 units for the 8, 16 and 24 mg/day treatments, respectively. The 16 mg/day and 24 mg/day treatments were statistically significantly superior to placebo and to the 8 mg/day treatment. There was no statistically significant difference between the 16 mg/day and 24 mg/day dose groups.

Figure 1: Time-Course of the Change From Baseline in ADAS-cog Score for Patients Completing 21 Weeks (5 Months) of Treatment

Time-Course of the Change From Baseline in ADAS-cog Score - Illustration

Figure 2 illustrates the cumulative percentages of patients from each of the four treatment groups who had attained at least the measure of improvement in ADAS-cog score shown on the X-axis. Three change scores (10-point, 7-point and 4-point reductions) and no change in score from baseline have been identified for illustrative purposes, and the percent of patients in each group achieving that result is shown in the inset table.

The curves demonstrate that both patients assigned to galantamine and placebo have a wide range of responses, but that the galantamine groups are more likely to show the greater improvements.

Figure 2: Cumulative Percentage of Patients Completing 21 Weeks of Double-Blind Treatment With Specified Changes From Baseline in ADAS-cog Scores. The Percentages of Randomized Patients Who Completed the Study Were: Placebo 84%, 8 mg/day 77%, 16 mg/day 78% and 24 mg/day 78%.

Measure of improvement in ADAS-cog - Illustration

Treatment Change in ADAS-cog
-10 -7 -4 -0
Placebo 3.6% 7.6% 19.6 % 41.8%
8 mg/day 5.9% 13.9% 25.7% 46.5%
16 mg/day 7.2% 15.9% 35.6% 65.4%
24 mg/day 10.4% 22.3% 37.0% 64.9%

Effects on the CIBIC-plus

Figure 3 is a histogram of the percentage distribution of CIBIC-plus scores attained by patients assigned to each of the four treatment groups who completed 21 weeks of treatment. The galantamine-placebo differences for these groups of patients in mean rating were 0.15, 0.41 and 0.44 units for the 8, 16 and 24 mg/day treatments, respectively. The 16 mg/day and 24 mg/day treatments were statistically significantly superior to placebo. The differences vs. the 8 mg/day treatment for the 16 and 24 mg/day treatments were 0.26 and 0.29, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the 16 mg/day and 24 mg/day dose groups.

Figure 3: Distribution of CIBIC-plus Ratings at Week 21

Distribution of CIBIC-plus Ratings - Illustration

U.S. Twenty-Six Week Fixed-Dose Study

In a study of 26 weeks duration, 636 patients were randomized to either a dose of 24 mg or 32 mg of galantamine per day, or to placebo, each given in two divided doses. The 26-week study was divided into a 3-week dose titration phase and a 23-week maintenance phase.

Effects on the ADAS-cog

Figure 4 illustrates the time course for the change from baseline in ADAS-cog scores for all three dose groups over the 26 weeks of the study. At 26 weeks of treatment, the mean differences in the ADAS-cog change scores for the galantamine-treated patients compared to the patients on placebo were 3.9 and 3.8 units for the 24 mg/day and 32 mg/day treatments, respectively. Both treatments were statistically significantly superior to placebo, but were not significantly different from each other.

Figure 4: Time-Course of the Change From Baseline in ADAS-cog Score for Patients Completing 26 Weeks of Treatment

Change From Baseline in ADAS-cog Score - Illustration

Figure 5 illustrates the cumulative percentages of patients from each of the three treatment groups who had attained at least the measure of improvement in ADAS-cog score shown on the X-axis. Three change scores (10-point, 7-point and 4-point reductions) and no change in score from baseline have been identified for illustrative purposes, and the percent of patients in each group achieving that result is shown in the inset table.

The curves demonstrate that both patients assigned to galantamine and placebo have a wide range of responses, but that the galantamine groups are more likely to show the greater improvements. A curve for an effective treatment would be shifted to the left of the curve for placebo, while an ineffective or deleterious treatment would be superimposed upon, or shifted to the right of the curve for placebo, respectively.

Treatment Change in ADAS-cog
-10 -7 -4 -0
Placebo 2.1% 5.7% 16.6 % 43.9%
24 mg/day 7.6% 18.3% 33.6% 64.1%
32 mg/day 11.1% 19.7% 33.3% 58.1%

Figure 5: Cumulative Percentage of Patients Completing 26 Weeks of Double-Blind Treatment With Specified Changes From Baseline in ADAS-cog Scores. The Percentages of Randomized Patients Who Completed the Study Were: Placebo 81%, 24 mg/day 68%, and 32 mg/day 58%.

Measure of improvement in ADAS-cog score - Illustration

Effects on the CIBIC-plus

Figure 6 is a histogram of the percentage distribution of CIBIC-plus scores attained by patients assigned to each of the three treatment groups who completed 26 weeks of treatment. The mean galantamine-placebo differences for these groups of patients in the mean rating were 0.28 and 0.29 units for 24 and 32 mg/day of galantamine, respectively. The mean ratings for both groups were statistically significantly superior to placebo, but were not significantly different from each other.

Figure 6: Distribution of CIBIC-plus Ratings at Week 26

Distribution of CIBIC-plus Ratings - Illustration

International Twenty-Six Week Fixed-Dose Study

In a study of 26 weeks duration identical in design to the USA 26-Week Fixed-Dose Study, 653 patients were randomized to either a dose of 24 mg or 32 mg of galantamine per day, or to placebo, each given in two divided doses. The 26-week study was divided into a 3-week dose titration phase and a 23-week maintenance phase.

Effects on the ADAS-cog

Figure 7 illustrates the time course for the change from baseline in ADAS-cog scores for all three dose groups over the 26 weeks of the study. At 26 weeks of treatment, the mean differences in the ADAS-cog change scores for the galantamine-treated patients compared to the patients on placebo were 3.1 and 4.1 units for the 24 mg/day and 32 mg/day treatments, respectively. Both treatments were statistically significantly superior to placebo, but were not significantly different from each other.

Figure 7: Time-Course of the Change From Baseline in ADAS-cog Score for Patients Completing 26 Weeks of Treatment

ADAS-cog Score - Illustration

Figure 8 illustrates the cumulative percentages of patients from each of the three treatment groups who had attained at least the measure of improvement in ADAS-cog score shown on the X-axis. Three change scores (10-point, 7-point and 4-point reductions) and no change in score from baseline have been identified for illustrative purposes, and the percent of patients in each group achieving that result is shown in the inset table.

The curves demonstrate that both patients assigned to galantamine and placebo have a wide range of responses, but that the galantamine groups are more likely to show the greater improvements.

Figure 8: Cumulative Percentage of Patients Completing 26 Weeks of Double-Blind Treatment With Specified Changes From Baseline in ADAS-cog Scores. The Percentages of Randomized Patients Who Completed the Study Were: Placebo 87%, 24 mg/day 80%, and 32 mg/day 75%.

Measure of improvement in ADAS-cog score - Illustration

Treatment Change in ADAS-cog
-10 -7 -4 -0
Placebo 1.2% 5.8% 15.2 % 39.8%
24 mg/day 4.5% 15.4% 30.8% 65.4%
32 mg/day 7.9% 19.7% 34.9% 63.8%

Effects on the CIBIC-plus

Figure 9 is a histogram of the percentage distribution of CIBIC-plus scores attained by patients assigned to each of the three treatment groups who completed 26 weeks of treatment. The mean galantamine-placebo differences for these groups of patients in the mean rating of change from baseline were 0.34 and 0.47 for 24 and 32 mg/day of galantamine respectively. The mean ratings for the galantamine groups were statistically significantly superior to placebo, but were not significantly different from each other.

Figure 9: Distribution of CIBIC-plus Rating at Week 26

Distribution of CIBIC-plus Rating - Illustration

International Thirteen-Week Flexible-Dose Study

In a study of 13 weeks duration, 386 patients were randomized to either a flexible dose of 24-32 mg/day of galantamine or to placebo, each given in two divided doses. The 13-week study was divided into a 3-week dose titration phase and a 10-week maintenance phase. The patients in the active treatment arm of the study were maintained at either 24 mg/day or 32 mg/day at the discretion of the investigator.

Effects on the ADAS-cog

Figure 10 illustrates the time course for the change from baseline in ADAS-cog scores for both dose groups over the 13 weeks of the study. At 13 weeks of treatment, the mean difference in the ADAS-cog change scores for the treated patients compared to the patients on placebo was 1.9. Galantamine at a dose of 24-32 mg/day was statistically significantly superior to placebo.

Figure 10: Time-Course of the Change From Baseline in ADAS-cog Score for Patients Completing 13 Weeks of Treatment

Time-Course of the Change From Baseline in ADAS-cog Score - Illustration

Figure 11 illustrates the cumulative percentages of patients from each of the two treatment groups who had attained at least the measure of improvement in ADAS-cog score shown on the X-axis. Three change scores (10-point, 7-point and 4-point reductions) and no change in score from baseline have been identified for illustrative purposes, and the percent of patients in each group achieving that result is shown in the inset table.

The curves demonstrate that both patients assigned to galantamine and placebo have a wide range of responses, but that the galantamine group is more likely to show the greater improvement.

Figure 11: Cumulative Percentage of Patients Completing 13 Weeks of Double-Blind Treatment With Specified Changes from Baseline in ADAS-cog Scores. The Percentages of Randomized Patients Who Completed the Study Were: Placebo 90%, 24-32 mg/day 67%.

Measure of improvement in ADAS-cog score - Illustration

Treatment Change in ADAS--cog
-10 -7 -4 -0
Placebo 1.9% 5.6% 19.4 % 50.0%
24 or 32 mg/day 7.1% 18.8% 32.9% 65.3%

Effects on the CIBIC-plus

Figure 12 is a histogram of the percentage distribution of CIBIC-plus scores attained by patients assigned to each of the two treatment groups who completed 13 weeks of treatment. The mean galantamine-placebo differences for the group of patients in the mean rating of change from baseline were 0.37 units. The mean rating for the 24–32 mg/day group was statistically significantly superior to placebo.

Figure 12 : Distribution of CIBIC - Plus Ratings at Week 13

Distribution of CIBIC - Plus Ratings - Illustration

Age, Gender and Race

Patient's age, gender, or race did not predict clinical outcome of treatment.

Extended-Release Capsules

The efficacy of galantamine extended-release capsules was studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial which was 6 months in duration, and had an initial 4-week dose-escalation phase. In this trial, patients were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups: Galantamine extended-release capsules in a flexible dose of 16 to 24 mg once daily; galantamine tablets in a flexible dose of 8 to 12 mg twice daily; and placebo. The primary efficacy measures in this study were the ADAS-cog and CIBIC-plus. On the protocol-specified primary efficacy analysis at Month 6, a statistically significant improvement favoring galantamine extended-release capsules over placebo was seen for the ADAS-cog, but not for the CIBIC-plus. Galantamine extended-release capsules showed a statistically significant improvement when compared with placebo on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale, a measure of function, and a secondary efficacy measure in this study. The effects of both galantamine extended-release capsules and galantamine tablets on the ADAS-cog, CIBIC-plus, and ADCS-ADL were similar in this study.

Last reviewed on RxList: 8/6/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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