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Adverse event information was obtained following administration of REVEX to 152 normal volunteers and in controlled clinical trials to 1127 patients for the treatment of opioid overdose or for postoperative opioid reversal.
Nalmefene was well tolerated and showed no serious toxicity during experimental administration to healthy individuals, even when given at 15 times the highest recommended dose. In a small number of subjects, at doses exceeding the recommended REVEX dose, nalmefene produced symptoms suggestive of reversal of endogenous opioids, such as have been reported for other narcotic antagonist drugs. These symptoms (nausea, chills, myalgia, dysphoria, abdominal cramps, and joint pain) were usually transient and occurred at very low frequency.
Such symptoms of precipitated opioid withdrawal at the recommended clinical doses were seen in both postoperative and overdose patients who were later found to have had histories of covert opioid use. Symptoms of precipitated withdrawal were similar to those seen with other opioid antagonists, were transient following the lower doses used in the postoperative setting, and more prolonged following the administration of the larger doses used in the treatment of overdose.
Tachycardia and nausea following the use of nalmefene in the postoperative setting were reported at the same frequencies as for naloxone at equivalent doses. The risk of both these adverse events was low at doses giving partial opioid reversal and increased with increases in dose. Thus, total doses larger than 1.0 µg/kg in the postoperative setting and 1.5 mg/70 kg in the treatment of overdose are not recommended.
Relative Frequencies of Common Adverse Reactions With an
Incidence Greater than 1% (all patients, all clinical settings)
Incidence less than 1%
DIGESTIVE: Diarrhea, dry mouth
UROGENITAL: Urinary retention
The incidence of adverse events was highest in patients who received more than the recommended dose of REVEX.
Transient increases in CPK were reported as adverse events in 0.5% of the postoperative patients studied. These increases were believed to be related to surgery and not believed to be related to the administration of REVEX. Increases in AST were reported as adverse events in 0.3% of the patients receiving either nalmefene or naloxone. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown. No cases of hepatitis or hepatic injury due to either nalmefene or naloxone were observed in the clinical trials.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
REVEX is an opioid antagonist with no agonist activity. It has no demonstrated abuse potential, is not addictive, and is not a controlled substance.
Read the Revex (nalmefene hydrochloride) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
REVEX has been administered after benzodiazepines, inhalational anesthetics, muscle relaxants, and muscle relaxant antagonists administered in conjunction with general anesthesia. It also has been administered in outpatient settings, both in trials in conscious sedation and in the emergency management of overdose following a wide variety of agents. No deleterious interactions have been observed.
Preclinical studies have shown that both flumazenil and nalmefene can induce seizures in animals. The coadministration of both flumazenil and nalmefene produced fewer seizures than expected in a study in rodents, based on the expected effects of each drug alone. Based on these data, an adverse interaction from the coadministration of the two drugs is not expected, but physicians should remain aware of the potential risk of seizures from agents in these classes.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/11/2012
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