REVLIMID is a thalidomide analogue and is contraindicated for use during pregnancy. Thalidomide is a known human teratogen that causes life-threatening human birth defects or embryo-fetal death [see Use in Specific Populations]. An embryo-fetal development study in monkeys indicates that lenalidomide produced malformations in the offspring of female monkeys who received the drug during pregnancy, similar to birth defects observed in humans following exposure to thalidomide during pregnancy.
REVLIMID is only available through the REVLIMID REMSTM program (formerly known as the “RevAssist® program”).
Females of Reproductive Potential
Females of reproductive potential must avoid pregnancy for at least 4 weeks before beginning REVLIMID therapy, during therapy, during dose interruptions and for at least 4 weeks after completing therapy.
Females must commit either to abstain continuously from heterosexual sexual intercourse or to use two methods of reliable birth control, beginning 4 weeks prior to initiating treatment with REVLIMID, during therapy, during dose interruptions and continuing for 4 weeks following discontinuation of REVLIMID therapy.
Two negative pregnancy tests must be obtained prior to initiating therapy. The first test should be performed within 10-14 days and the second test within 24 hours prior to prescribing REVLIMID therapy and then weekly during the first month, then monthly thereafter in women with regular menstrual cycles or every 2 weeks in women with irregular menstrual cycles [see Use In Specific Populations].
Lenalidomide is present in the semen of patients receiving the drug. Therefore, males must always use a latex or synthetic condom during any sexual contact with females of reproductive potential while taking REVLIMID and for up to 28 days after discontinuing REVLIMID, even if they have undergone a successful vasectomy. Male patients taking REVLIMID must not donate sperm [see Use In Specific Populations].
Patients must not donate blood during treatment with REVLIMID and for 1 month following discontinuation of the drug because the blood might be given to a pregnant female patient whose fetus must not be exposed to REVLIMID.
REVLIMID REMS™ program
Because of the embryo-fetal risk, REVLIMID is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS), the REVLIMID REMSTM program (formerly known as the “RevAssist®” program).
Required components of the REVLIMID REMS™ program include the following:
- Prescribers must be certified with the REVLIMID REMS™ program by enrolling and complying with the REMS requirements.
- Patients must sign a Patient-Prescriber agreement form and comply with the REMS requirements. In particular, female patients of reproductive potential who are not pregnant must comply with the pregnancy testing and contraception requirements [see Use In Specific Populations] and males must comply with contraception requirements [see Use in Specific Populations].
- Pharmacies must be certified with the REVLIMID REMS™ program, must only dispense to patients who are authorized to receive REVLIMID and comply with REMS requirements.
Further information about the REVLIMID REMS™ program is available at www.celgeneriskmanagement.com or by telephone at 1-888-423-5436.
REVLIMID can cause significant neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Patients taking REVLIMID for MDS should have their complete blood counts monitored weekly for the first 8 weeks and at least monthly thereafter. Patients taking REVLIMID for MM should have their complete blood counts monitored every 2 weeks for the first 12 weeks and then monthly thereafter. Patients taking REVLIMID for MCL should have their complete blood counts monitored weekly for the first cycle (28 days), every 2 weeks during cycles 2-4, and then monthly thereafter. Patients may require dose interruption and/or dose reduction [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity was seen in 80% of patients enrolled in the MDS study. In the 48% of patients who developed Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, the median time to onset was 42 days (range, 14-411 days), and the median time to documented recovery was 17 days (range, 2-170 days). In the 54% of patients who developed Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia, the median time to onset was 28 days (range, 8-290 days), and the median time to documented recovery was 22 days (range, 5-224 days [see BOXED WARNING and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
In the pooled MM trials Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxicities were more frequent in patients treated with the combination of REVLIMID and dexamethasone than in patients treated with dexamethasone alone [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In the MCL trial, Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was reported in 43% of the patients. Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia was reported in 28% of the patients.
Venous thromboembolic events (predominantly deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) have occurred in patients with multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide combination therapy [see BOXED WARNING] and patients with MDS or MCL treated with lenalidomide monotherapy. A significantly increased risk of DVT and PE was observed in patients with multiple myeloma who were treated with REVLIMID and dexamethasone therapy in a clinical trial [see BOXED WARNING]. It is not known whether prophylactic anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy prescribed in conjunction with REVLIMID may lessen the potential for venous thromboembolism. The decision to take prophylactic measures should be done carefully after an assessment of an individual patient's underlying risk factors.
REVLIMID capsules contain lactose. Risk-benefit of REVLIMID treatment should be evaluated in patients with lactose intolerance.
Increased Mortality in Patients with CLL
In a prospective randomized (1:1) clinical trial in the first line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, single agent REVLIM ID therapy increased the risk of death as compared to single agent chlorambucil. In an interim analysis, there were 34 deaths among 210 patients on the REVLIMID treatment arm compared to 18 deaths among 211 patients in the chlorambucil treatment arm, and hazard ratio for overall survival was 1.92 [95% CI: 1.08 – 3.41], consistent with a 92% increase in the risk of death. The trial was halted for safety in July 2013.
Serious adverse cardiovascular reactions, including atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and cardiac failure occurred more frequently in the REVLIMID treatment arm. REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for use in CLL outside of controlled clinical trials.
Second Primary Malignancies
Patients with multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide in studies including melphalan and stem cell transplantation had a higher incidence of second primary malignancies, particularly acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and Hodgkin lymphoma, compared to patients in the control arms who received similar therapy but did not receive lenalidomide. Monitor patients for the development of second malignancies. Take into account both the potential benefit of lenalidomide and the risk of second primary malignancies when considering treatment with lenalidomide.
Hepatic failure, including fatal cases, has occurred in patients treated with lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone. In clinical trials, 15% of patients experienced hepatotoxicity (with hepatocellular, cholestatic and mixed characteristics); 2% of patients with multiple myeloma and 1% of patients with myelodysplasia had serious hepatotoxicity events. The mechanism of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is unknown. Preexisting viral liver disease, elevated baseline liver enzymes, and concomitant medications may be risk factors. Monitor liver enzymes periodically. Stop REVLIMID upon elevation of liver enzymes. After return to baseline values, treatment at a lower dose may be considered.
Angioedema and serious dermatologic reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported. These events can be fatal. Patients with a prior history of Grade 4 rash associated with thalidomide treatment should not receive REVLIMID. REVLIMID interruption or discontinuation should be considered for Grade 2-3 skin rash. REVLIMID must be discontinued for angioedema, Grade 4 rash, exfoliative or bullous rash, or if SJS or TEN is suspected and should not be resumed following discontinuation for these reactions.
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Fatal instances of tumor lysis syndrome have been reported during treatment with lenalidomide. The patients at risk of tumor lysis syndrome are those with high tumor burden prior to treatment. These patients should be monitored closely and appropriate precautions taken.
Tumor Flare Reaction
Tumor flare reaction has occurred during investigational use of lenalidomide for CLL and lymphoma, and is characterized by tender lymph node swelling, low grade fever, pain and rash. REVLIMID is not indicated and not recommended for use in CLL outside of controlled clinical trials.
Monitoring and evaluation for tumor flare reaction (TFR) is recommended in patients with MCL. Tumor flare reaction may mimic progression of disease (PD). In the MCL trial, 13/134 (10%) of subjects experienced TFR; all reports were Grade 1 or 2 in severity. All of the events occurred in cycle 1 and one patient developed TFR again in cycle 11. Lenalidomide may be continued in patients with Grade 1 and 2 TFR without interruption or modification, at the physician's discretion. Patients with Grade 1 and 2 TFR may also be treated with corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or narcotic analgesics for management of TFR symptoms. In patients with Grade 3 or 4 TFR, it is recommended to withhold treatment with lenalidomide until TFR resolves to ≤ Grade 1. Patients with Grade 3 or 4 TFR may be treated for management of symptoms per the guidance for treatment of Grade 1 and 2 TFR.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved Patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Advise patients that REVLIMID is contraindicated in pregnancy [see CONTRAINDICATONS]. REVLIMID is a thalidomide analog and can cause serious birth defects or death to a developing baby. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations].
- Advise females of reproductive potential that they must avoid pregnancy while taking REVLIMID and for at least 4 weeks after completing therapy.
- Initiate REVLIMID treatment in females of reproductive potential only following a negative pregnancy test.
- Advise females of reproductive potential of the importance of monthly pregnancy tests and the need to use two different forms of contraception including at least one highly effective form simultaneously during REVLIMID therapy, during dose interruption and for 4 weeks after she has completely finished taking REVLIMID. Highly effective forms of contraception other than tubal ligation include IUD and hormonal (birth control pills, injections, patch or implants) and a partner's vasectomy. Additional effective contraceptive methods include latex or synthetic condom, diaphragm and cervical cap.
- Instruct patient to immediately stop taking REVLIMID and contact her doctor if she becomes pregnant while taking this drug, if she misses her menstrual period, or experiences unusual menstrual bleeding, if she stops taking birth control, or if she thinks FOR ANY REASON that she may be pregnant.
- Advise patient that if her doctor is not available, she can call 1-888-668-2528 for information on emergency contraception [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations].
- Advise males to always use a latex or synthetic condom during any sexual contact with females of reproductive potential while taking REVLIMID and for up to 28 days after discontinuing REVLIMID, even if they have undergone a successful vasectomy.
- Advise male patients taking REVLIMID that they must not donate sperm [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
- All patients must be instructed to not donate blood while taking REVLIMID, during dose interruptions and for 1 month following discontinuation of REVLIMID [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
REVLIMID REMS™ program
Because of the risk of embryo-fetal toxicity, REVLIMID is only available through a restricted program called the REVLIMID REMS™ program (formerly known as the “RevAssist®” program) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Patients must sign a Patient-Prescriber agreement form and comply with the requirements to receive REVLIMID. In particular, females of reproductive potential must comply with the pregnancy testing, contraception requirements and participate in monthly telephone surveys. Males must comply with the contraception requirements [see Use In Specific Populations].
- REVLIMID is available only from pharmacies that are certified in REVLIMID REMS™ program. Provide patients with the telephone number and website for information on how to obtain the product.
Inform patients that REVLIMID is associated with significant neutropenia and thrombocytopenia [see BOXED WARNINGS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that REVLIMID/dexamethasone has demonstrated significant increased risk of DVT and PE in patients with multiple myeloma [see BOXED WARNINGS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Increased Mortality in Patients with CLL
Inform patients that REVLIMID had increased mortality in patients with CLL and serious adverse cardiovascular reactions, including atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and cardiac failure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Second Primary Malignancies
Inform patients of the potential risk of developing second primary malignancies during treatment with REVLIMID.
Inform patients of the risk of hepatotoxicity, including hepatic failure and death, and to report any signs and symptoms associated with this event to their healthcare provider for evaluation.
Inform patients of the potential for allergic reactions including hypersensitivity, angioedema, Stevens Johnsons Syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis if they had such a reaction to THALOMID and report symptoms associated with these events to their healthcare provider for evaluation.
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Inform patients of the potential risk of tumor lysis syndrome and to report any signs and symptoms associated with this event to their healthcare provider for evaluation.
Tumor Flare Reaction
Inform patients of the potential risk of tumor flare reaction and to report any signs and symptoms associated with this event to their healthcare provider for evaluation.
Inform patients to take REVLIMID once daily at about the same time each day, either with or without food. The capsules should not be opened, broken, or chewed. REVLIMID should be swallowed whole with water.
Instruct patients that if they miss a dose of REVLIMID, they may still take it up to 12 hours after the time they would normally take it. If more than 12 hours have elapsed, they should be instructed to skip the dose for that day. The next day, they should take REVLIMID at the usual time. Warn patients to not take 2 doses to make up for the one that they missed.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Carcinogenicity studies with lenalidomide have not been conducted.
Lenalidomide was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and did not induce chromosome aberrations in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes, or mutations at the thymidine kinase (tk) locus of mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. Lenalidomide did not increase morphological transformation in Syrian Hamster Embryo assay or induce micronuclei in the polychromatic erythrocytes of the bone marrow of male rats.
A fertility and early embryonic development study in rats, with administration of lenalidomide up to 500 mg/kg (approximately 200 times the human dose of 25 mg, based on body surface area) produced no parental toxicity and no adverse effects on fertility.
Use In Specific Populations
REVLIMID can cause embryo-fetal harm when administered to a pregnant female and is contraindicated during pregnancy. REVLIMID is a thalidomide analogue.
Thalidomide is a human teratogen, inducing a high frequency of severe and life-threatening birth defects such as amelia (absence of limbs), phocomelia (short limbs), hypoplasticity of the bones, absence of bones, external ear abnormalities (including anotia, micropinna, small or absent external auditory canals), facial palsy, eye abnormalities (anophthalmos, microphthalmos), and congenital heart defects. Alimentary tract, urinary tract, and genital malformations have also been documented and mortality at or shortly after birth has been reported in about 40% of infants.
Lenalidomide caused thalidomide-type limb defects in monkey offspring. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.
If pregnancy does occur during treatment, immediately discontinue the drug. Under these conditions, refer patient to an obstetrician/gynecologist experienced in reproductive toxicity for further evaluation and counseling. Any suspected fetal exposure to REVLIMID must be reported to the FDA via the MedWatch program at 1-800-332-1088 and also to Celgene Corporation at 1-888-423-5436.
In an embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study in monkeys, teratogenicity, including thalidomide-like limb defects, occurred in offspring when pregnant monkeys received oral lenalidomide during organogenesis. Exposure (AUC) in monkeys at the lowest dose was 0.17 times the human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 25 mg. Similar studies in pregnant rabbits and rats at 20 times and 200 times the MRHD respectively, produced embryo lethality in rabbits and no adverse reproductive effects in rats.
In a pre-and post-natal development study in rats, animals received lenalidomide from organogenesis through lactation. The study revealed a few adverse effects on the offspring of female rats treated with lenalidomide at doses up to 500 mg/kg (approximately 200 times the human dose of 25 mg based on body surface area). The male offspring exhibited slightly delayed sexual maturation and the female offspring had slightly lower body weight gains during gestation when bred to male offspring. As with thalidomide, the rat model may not adequately address the full spectrum of potential human embryo-fetal developmental effects for lenalidomide.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants from lenalidomide, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 have not been established.
REVLIMID has been used in multiple myeloma (MM) clinical trials in patients up to 86 years of age.
Of the 703 MM patients who received study treatment in Studies 1 and 2, 45% were age 65 or over while 12% of patients were age 75 and over. The percentage of patients age 65 or over was not significantly different between the REVLIMID/dexamethasone and placebo/dexamethasone groups. Of the 353 patients who received REVLIMID/dexamethasone, 46% were age 65 and over. In both studies, patients > 65 years of age were more likely than patients ≤ 65 years of age to experience DVT, pulmonary embolism, atrial fibrillation, and renal failure following use of REVLIMID. No differences in efficacy were observed between patients over 65 years of age and younger patients.
REVLIMID has been used in del 5q MDS clinical trials in patients up to 95 years of age.
Of the 148 patients with del 5q MDS enrolled in the major study, 38% were age 65 and over, while 33% were age 75 and over. Although the overall frequency of adverse events (100%) was the same in patients over 65 years of age as in younger patients, the frequency of serious adverse events was higher in patients over 65 years of age than in younger patients (54% vs. 33%). A greater proportion of patients over 65 years of age discontinued from the clinical studies because of adverse events than the proportion of younger patients (27% vs.16%). No differences in efficacy were observed between patients over 65 years of age and younger patients.
REVLIMID has been used in a mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) clinical trial in patients up to 83 years of age. Of the 134 patients with MCL enrolled in the MCL trial, 63% were age 65 and over, while 22% of patients were age 75 and over. The overall frequency of adverse events was similar in patients over 65 years of age and in younger patients (98% vs. 100%). The overall incidence of grade 3 and 4 adverse events was also similar in these 2 patient groups (79% vs. 78%, respectively). The frequency of serious adverse events was higher in patients over 65 years of age than in younger patients (55% vs. 41%). No differences in efficacy were observed between patients over 65 years of age and younger patients.
Since elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection. Monitor renal function.
Females of Reproductive Potential and Males
REVLIMID can cause fetal harm when administered during pregnancy. Females of reproductive potential must avoid pregnancy 4 weeks before therapy, while taking REVLIMID, during dose interruptions and for at least 4 weeks after completing therapy.
Females of reproductive potential must commit either to abstain continuously from heterosexual sexual intercourse or to use two methods of reliable birth control simultaneously (one highly effective form of contraception – tubal ligation, IUD, hormonal (birth control pills, injections, hormonal patches, vaginal rings or implants) or partner's vasectomy and one additional effective contraceptive method – male latex or synthetic condom, diaphragm or cervical cap. Contraception must begin 4 weeks prior to initiating treatment with REVLIMID, during therapy, during dose interruptions and continuing for 4 weeks following discontinuation of REVLIMID therapy. Reliable contraception is indicated even where there has been a history of infertility, unless due to hysterectomy. Females of reproductive potential should be referred to a qualified provider of contraceptive methods, if needed.
Females of reproductive potential must have 2 negative pregnancy tests before initiating REVLIMID. The first test should be performed within 10-14 days, and the second test within 24 hours prior to prescribing REVLIMID. Once treatment has started and during dose interruptions, pregnancy testing for females of reproductive potential should occur weekly during the first 4 weeks of use, then pregnancy testing should be repeated every 4 weeks in females with regular menstrual cycles. If menstrual cycles are irregular, the pregnancy testing should occur every 2 weeks. Pregnancy testing and counseling should be performed if a patient misses her period or if there is any abnormality in her menstrual bleeding. REVLIMID treatment must be discontinued during this evaluation.
Lenalidomide is present in the semen of males who take REVLIMID. Therefore, males must always use a latex or synthetic condom during any sexual contact with females of reproductive potential while taking REVLIMID, during dose interruptions and for up to 28 days after discontinuing REVLIMID, even if they have undergone a successful vasectomy. Male patients taking REVLIMID must not donate sperm
Since lenalidomide is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidney, adjustments to the starting dose of REVLIMID are recommended to provide appropriate drug exposure in patients with moderate (CLcr 30-60 mL/min) or severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min) and in patients on dialysis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
No dedicated study has been conducted in patients with hepatic impairment. The elimination of unchanged lenalidomide is predominantly by the renal route.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/14/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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