Rheumatic Fever (cont.)
David Perlstein, MD, MBA, FAAP
Dr. Perlstein received his Medical Degree from the University of Cincinnati and then completed his internship and residency in pediatrics at The New York Hospital, Cornell medical Center in New York City. After serving an additional year as Chief Pediatric Resident, he worked as a private practitioner and then was appointed Director of Ambulatory Pediatrics at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx.
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
In this Article
- What is rheumatic fever?
- What are the Jones criteria?
- What causes rheumatic fever?
- What are symptoms and signs of rheumatic fever?
- How is rheumatic fever diagnosed?
- How is rheumatic fever treated?
- What are the complications of rheumatic fever?
- How is rheumatic fever prevented?
- How common is rheumatic fever?
- Where can one find more information on rheumatic fever?
- Rheumatic Fever (Acute Rheumatic Fever or ARF) At A Glance
What causes rheumatic fever?
There is a direct and well described connection between certain streptococcal infections and rheumatic fever. Most commonly, rheumatic fever is preceded by a throat infection with group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (strep throat, GABHS, or GAS). The bacterium causes an autoimmune (antibodies that attack the host's own cells) inflammatory response in some people which leads to the myriad of signs and symptoms described by the Jones criteria. Streptococcal throat infections are contagious, but rheumatic fever is not. The symptoms of rheumatic fever generally develop within two to three weeks of an infection with streptococcal bacteria, and usually the first symptoms are painful joints or arthritis.
What are symptoms and signs of rheumatic fever?
As mentioned above, there are quite a few symptoms associated with rheumatic fever. These include
1. carditis (inflammation of the heart), which occurs in 60% of patients is the
most severe symptom of ARF and can result in permanent damage to the heart
valves, and can be life threatening;
2. polyarthritis or migratory polyarthritis (joint inflammation), which usually presents first and occurs in 45% of patients and most commonly affects the large joints such as the knees;
3. Aschoff bodies (subcutaneous skin nodules), which are firm, painless lumps most frequently found around the wrists, elbows and knees. These are present in only 2% of patients;
4. erythema marginatum (rash), which occurs in 5% of patients and often described as a "serpiginous" with a wavy and snakelike appearance which has distinct erythematous (red) borders or "margins";
5. Sydenham's chorea (abnormal movements) occurs in 30% of patients and is a movement disorder comprising of purposeless volatile movements of the face and arms. This was also called St. Vitus' dance, which was named after the patron saint of the "mania dancers" of the middle ages; and
6. fever is often present during the acute infection with group A strep and is present during the initial phase of rheumatic fever.
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