May 2, 2016
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Rhophylac

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Rhophylac

RHOPHYLAC
Rh0(D) Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) 1500 IU (300 mcg)
Solution for Intravenous (IV) or Intramuscular (IM) Injection (Human)




WARNING

INTRAVASCULAR HEMOLYSIS IN ITP

This warning does not apply to Rh0(D)-negative patients treated for the suppression of Rh isoimmunization.

  • Intravascular hemolysis leading to death has been reported in Rh0(D)- positive patients treated for immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) with Rh0(D) Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) products.
  • Intravascular hemolysis can lead to clinically compromising anemia and multi-system organ failure including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); acute renal insufficiency, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have been reported.
  • Monitor patients treated for signs and symptoms of hemolysis in a healthcare setting for at least 8 hours after administration. Perform a dipstick urinalysis at baseline, 2 hours and 4 hours after administration, and prior to the end of the monitoring period. Alert patients to, and monitor them for back pain, shaking chills, fever, and discolored urine or hematuria. Absence of these signs and/or symptoms within 8 hours does not indicate IVH cannot occur subsequently. If signs and/or symptoms of intravascular hemolysis are present or suspected after Rhophylac administration, perform post-treatment laboratory tests, including plasma hemoglobin, haptoglobin, LDH, and plasma bilirubin (direct and indirect).

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Rhophylac is a sterile Rh0(D) Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) (anti-D) solution in a ready-to-use prefilled glass syringe for intravenous or intramuscular injection. One syringe contains at least 1500 IU (300 mcg) of IgG antibodies to Rh0(D) in a 2 mL solution, sufficient to suppress the immune response to at least 15 mL of Rh-positive RBCs.2 The product potency is expressed in IUs by comparison to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard, which is also the US and the European Pharmacopoeia standard.

Plasma is obtained from healthy Rh0(D)-negative donors who have been immunized with Rh0(D)-positive RBCs. The donors are screened carefully to reduce the risk of receiving donations containing blood-borne pathogens. Each plasma donation used in the manufacture of Rhophylac is tested for the presence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HIV-½, and HCV antibodies. In addition, plasma used in the manufacture of Rhophylac is tested by FDA-licensed Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for HBV, HCV, and HIV-1 and found to be negative. The credit plasma is also tested by NAT for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and B19 virus (B19V).

Rhophylac is produced by an ion-exchange chromatography isolation procedure4, using pooled plasma obtained by plasmapheresis of immunized Rh0(D)-negative US donors. The manufacturing process includes a solvent/detergent treatment step (using tri-n-butyl phosphate and Triton™ X-100) that is effective in inactivating enveloped viruses such as HIV, HCV, and HBV.5,6 Rhophylac is filtered using a Planova® 15 nanometer (nm) virus filter that has been validated to be effective in removing both enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. Table 3 presents viral clearance and inactivation data from validation studies, expressed as the mean log10 reduction factor (LRF).

Table 3: Virus Inactivation and Removal in Rhophylac

  HIV PRV BVDV MVM
Virus property
Genome RNA DNA RNA DNA
Envelope Yes Yes Yes No
Size (nm) 80-100 120-200 40-70 18-24
Manufacturing step Mean LRF
Solvent/detergent treatment ≥ 6.0 ≥ 5.6 ≥ 5.4 Not tested
Chromatographic process steps 4.5 ≥ 3.9 1.6 ≥ 2.6
Virus filtration ≥ 6.3 ≥ 5.6 ≥ 5.5 3.4
Overall reduction ≥ 16.8 ≥ 15.1 ≥ 12.5 ≥ 6.0
HIV, a model for HIV-1 and HIV-2; PRV, pseudorabies virus, a model for large, enveloped DNA viruses (e.g., herpes virus); BVDV, bovine viral diarrhea virus, a model for HCV and West Nile virus; MVM, minute virus of mice, a model for B19V and other small, non-enveloped DNA viruses.

Rhophylac contains a maximum of 30 mg/mL of human plasma proteins, 10 mg/mL of which is human albumin added as a stabilizer. Prior to the addition of the stabilizer, Rhophylac has a purity greater than 95% IgG. Rhophylac contains less than 5 mcg/mL of IgA, which is the limit of detection. Additional excipients are approximately 20 mg/ mL of glycine and up to 0.25 M of sodium chloride. Rhophylac contains no preservative. Human albumin is manufactured from pooled plasma of US donors by cold ethanol fractionation, followed by pasteurization.

REFERENCES

2. Gaines AR. Disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with acute hemoglobinemia or hemoglobinuria following Rh0(D) immune globulin intravenous administration for immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood. 2005;106:1532- 1537.

4. Stucki M, Moudry R, Kempf C, Omar A, Schlegel A, Lerch PG. Characterisation of a chromatographically produced anti-D immunoglobulin product. J Chromatogr B. 1997;700:241-248.

5. Horowitz B, Chin S, Prince AM, Brotman B, Pascual D, Williams B. Preparation and characterization of S/D-FFP, a virus sterilized “fresh frozen plasma”. J Thromb Haemost. 1991;65:1163.

6. Horowitz B, Bonomo R, Prince AM, Chin S, Brotman B, Shulman RW. Solvent/ detergent-treated plasma: a virus-inactivated substitute for fresh frozen plasma. Blood. 1992;79:826-831.

What are the possible side effects of RHo (D) immune globulin?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: rash or hives; feeling light-headed, chest tightness, difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • fever, chills, shaking, back pain, dark colored urine;
  • rapid breathing, feeling short of breath.
  • urinating less than usual or not at all, swelling, rapid weight gain; or
  • pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, rapid heart rate, trouble concentrating, feeling...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Rhophylac »

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/18/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

 

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


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