Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Ringworm facts
- What does the term ringworm mean?
- Is ringworm contagious?
- What causes ringworm?
- What are the sources of skin fungi?
- What are risk factors for ringworm?
- What types of ringworm are there? What are ringworm symptoms and signs?
- How is ringworm diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for ringworm? Are there home remedies?
- How can ringworm be prevented?
- What is the prognosis (outlook) for ringworm?
- Pictures of Ringworm - Slideshow
- Pictures of Skin Conditions - Quiz
- Pictures of Childhood Skin Problems - Slideshow
- Find a local Dermatologist in your town
What causes ringworm?
Although the world is full of yeasts, molds, and fungi, only a few cause skin problems. These agents are called the dermatophytes, which means "skin fungi." An infection with these fungi is sometimes known as dermatophytosis. Skin fungi can only live on the dead layer of keratin protein on top of the skin. They rarely invade deeper into the body and cannot live on mucous membranes, such as those in the mouth or vagina.
Scientific names for the most common of the dermatophyte fungi that cause ringworm include Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton interdigitale, and/or Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, and Epidermophyton floccosum.
What are the sources of skin fungi?
Some fungi live only on human skin, hair, or nails. Others live on animals and only sometimes are found on human skin. Still others live in the soil. It is often difficult or impossible to identify the source of a particular person's skin fungus. The fungi may spread from person to person (anthropophilic), from animal to person (zoophilic), or from the soil to a person (geophilic).
Heat and moisture help fungi grow and thrive, which makes them more commonly found in skin folds such as those in the groin or between the toes. This also accounts for their reputation as being caught from showers, locker rooms, and swimming pools. This reputation is exaggerated, though, since many people with "jock itch" or "athlete's foot" have not contracted the infection from locker rooms or athletic facilities.
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