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Risperdal Consta

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Risperdal Consta

Side Effects
Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:

The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials in patients with schizophrenia ( ≥ 5%) were: headache, parkinsonism, dizziness, akathisia, fatigue, constipation, dyspepsia, sedation, weight increased, pain in extremity, and dry mouth. The most common adverse reactions in the double-blind, placebo-controlled periods of the bipolar disorder trials were weight increased (5% in the monotherapy trial) and tremor and parkinsonism ( ≥ 10% in the adjunctive treatment trial).

The most common adverse reactions that were associated with discontinuation from the 12week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with schizophrenia (causing discontinuation in ≥ 1% of patients) were agitation, depression, anxiety, and akathisia. Adverse reactions that were associated with discontinuation from the double-blind, placebo-controlled periods of the bipolar disorder trials were hyperglycemia (one patient in the monotherapy trial) and hypokinesia and tardive dyskinesia (one patient each in the adjunctive treatment trial).

The data described in this section are derived from a clinical trial database consisting of 2392 patients exposed to one or more doses of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® for the treatment of schizophrenia. Of these 2392 patients, 332 were patients who received RISPERDAL® CONSTA® while participating in a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Two hundred two (202) of the 332 were schizophrenia patients who received 25 mg or 50 mg RISPERDAL® CONSTA®. The conditions and duration of treatment with RISPERDAL® CONSTA® in the other clinical trials varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) double-blind, fixed- and flexible-dose, placebo- or active-controlled studies and open-label phases of studies, inpatients and outpatients, and short-term (up to 12 weeks) and longer-term (up to 4 years) exposures. Safety was assessed by collecting adverse events and performing physical examinations, vital signs, body weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs.

In addition to the studies in patients with schizophrenia, safety data are presented from a trial assessing the efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® when administered as monotherapy for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar I disorder. The subjects in this multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study were adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar Disorder Type I and who were stable on risperidone (oral or long-acting injection), were stable on other antipsychotics or mood stabilizers, or were experiencing an acute episode. After a 3-week period of treatment with open-label oral risperidone (n=440), subjects who demonstrated an initial response to oral risperidone in this period and those who were stable on risperidone (oral or long-acting injection) at study entry entered into a 26-week stabilization period of open-label RISPERDAL® CONSTA® (n=501). Subjects who demonstrated a maintained response during this period were then randomized into a 24-month double-blind, placebo-controlled period in which they received RISPERDAL® CONSTA® (n=154) or placebo (n=149) as monotherapy. Subjects who relapsed or who completed the double-blind period could choose to enter an 8-week open-label RISPERDAL® CONSTA® extension period (n=160).

Safety data are also presented from a trial assessing the efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® when administered as adjunctive maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar disorder. The subjects in this multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study were adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar Disorder Type I or Type II and who experienced at least 4 episodes of mood disorder requiring psychiatric/clinical intervention in the previous 12 months, including at least 2 episodes in the 6 months prior to the start of the study. At the start of this study, all patients (n=275) entered into a 16-week open-label treatment phase in which they received RISPERDAL® CONSTA® in addition to continuing their treatment as usual, which consisted of various mood stabilizers (primarily lithium and valproate), antidepressants, and/or anxiolytics. Patients who reached remission at the end of this 16-week open-label treatment phase (n=139) were then randomized into a 52-week double-blind, placebo-controlled phase in which they received RISPERDAL® CONSTA® (n=72) or placebo (n = 67) as adjunctive treatment in addition to continuing their treatment as usual. Patients who did not reach remission at the end of the 16-week open-label treatment phase could choose to continue to receive RISPERDAL® CONSTA® as adjunctive therapy in an open-label manner, in addition to continuing their treatment as usual, for up to an additional 36 weeks as clinically indicated for a total period of up to 52 weeks; these patients (n=70) were also included in the evaluation of safety.

Adverse events during exposure to study treatment were obtained by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using their own terminology. Consequently, to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events, events were grouped in standardized categories using MedDRA terminology.

Throughout this section, adverse reactions are reported. Adverse reactions are adverse events that were considered to be reasonably associated with the use of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® (adverse drug reactions) based on the comprehensive assessment of the available adverse event information. A causal association for RISPERDAL® CONSTA® often cannot be reliably established in individual cases. Further, because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

The majority of all adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity.

Commonly-Observed Adverse Reactions In Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials - Schizophrenia

Table 4 lists the adverse reactions reported in 2% or more of RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients with schizophrenia in one 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Table 4: Adverse Reactions in ≥ 2% of RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-Treated Patients with Schizophrenia in a 12Week Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
RISPERDAL® CONSTA® Placebo
(N=98)
25 mg
(N=99)
50 mg
(N=103)
Eye disorders
  Vision blurred 2 3 0
Gastrointestinal disorders
  Constipation 5 7 1
  Dry mouth 0 7 1
  Dyspepsia 6 6 0
  Nausea 3 4 5
  Toothache 1 3 0
  Salivary hypersecretion 4 1 0
General disorders and administration site conditions
  Fatigue* 3 9 0
  Edema peripheral 2 3 1
  Pain 4 1 0
  Pyrexia 2 1 0
Infections and infestations
  Upper respiratory tract infection 2 0 1
Investigations
  Weight increased 5 4 2
  Weight decreased 4 1 1
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
  Pain in extremity 6 2 1
Nervous system disorders
  Headache 15 21 12
  Parkinsonism* 8 15 9
  Dizziness 7 11 6
  Akathisia* 4 11 6
  Sedation* 5 6 3
  Tremor 0 3 0
  Syncope 2 1 0
  Hypoesthesia 2 0 0
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
  Cough 4 2 3
  Sinus congestion 2 0 0
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
  Acne 2 2 0
  Dry skin 2 0 0
* Fatigue includes fatigue and asthenia. Parkinsonism includes extrapyramidal disorder, musculoskeletal stiffness, muscle rigidity, and bradykinesia. Akathisia includes akathisia and restlessness. Sedation includes sedation and somnolence.

Commonly-Observed Adverse Reactions In Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials – Bipolar Disorder

Table 5 lists the treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported in 2% or more of RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients in the 24-month double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment period of the trial assessing the efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® when administered as monotherapy for maintenance treatment in patients with Bipolar I Disorder.

Table 5: Adverse Reactions in ≥ 2% of Patients with Bipolar I Disorder Treated with RISPERDAL® CONSTA® as Monotherapy in a 24-Month Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
RISPERDAL® CONSTA®
(N=154)
Placebo
(N=149)
Investigations
  Weight increased 5 1
Nervous system disorders
  Dizziness 3 1
Vascular disorders
  Hypertension 3 1

Table 6 lists the treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported in 4% or more of patients in the 52-week double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment phase of a trial assessing the efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® when administered as adjunctive maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar disorder.

Table 6: Adverse Reactions in ≥ 4% of Patients with Bipolar Disorder Treated with RISPERDAL® CONSTA® as Adjunctive Therapy in a 52-Week Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
RISPERDAL®
CONSTA® + Treatment as Usuala
(N=72)
Placebo + Treatment as Usuala
(N=67)
General disorders and administration site conditions
  Gait abnormal 4 0
Infections and infestations
  Upper respiratory tract infection 6 3
Investigations
  Weight increased 7 1
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
  Decreased appetite 6 1
Increased appetite 4 0
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders 
  Arthralgia 4 3
Nervous system disorders
  Tremor 24 16
  Parkinsonismb 15 6
  Dyskinesiab 6 3
  Sedationc 7 1
  Disturbance in attention 4 0
Reproductive system and breast disorders
  Amenorrhea 4 1
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
  Cough 4 1
a Patients received double-blind RISPERDAL® CONSTA® or placebo in addition to continuing their treatment as usual, which included mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and/or anxiolytics.
bParkinsonism includes muscle rigidity, hypokinesia, cogwheel rigidity, and bradykinesia. Dyskinesia includes muscle twitching and dyskinesia.
cSedation includes sedation and somnolence.

Other Adverse Reactions Observed During The Clinical Trial Evaluation Of Risperidone

The following additional adverse reactions occurred in < 2% of the RISPERDAL® CONSTA®treated patients in the above schizophrenia double-blind, placebo-controlled trial dataset, in < 2% of the RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients in the above double-blind, placebo-controlled period of the monotherapy bipolar disorder trial dataset, or in < 4% of the RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients in the above double-blind, placebo-controlled period of the adjunctive treatment bipolar disorder trial dataset. The following also includes additional adverse reactions reported at any frequency in RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients who participated in the open-label phases of the above bipolar disorder studies and in other studies, including double-blind, active controlled and open-label studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders: anemia, neutropenia

Cardiac disorders: tachycardia, atrioventricular block first degree, palpitations, sinus bradycardia, bundle branch block left, bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, bundle branch block right

Ear and labyrinth disorders: ear pain, vertigo

Endocrine disorders: hyperprolactinemia

Eye disorders: conjunctivitis, visual acuity reduced

Gastrointestinal disorders: diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain upper, abdominal pain, stomach discomfort, gastritis

General disorders and administration site conditions: injection site pain, chest discomfort, chest pain, influenza like illness, sluggishness, malaise, induration, injection site induration, injection site swelling, injection site reaction, face edema

Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity

Infections and infestations: nasopharyngitis, influenza, bronchitis, urinary tract infection, rhinitis, respiratory tract infection, ear infection, pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis, sinusitis, viral infection, infection, localized infection, cystitis, gastroenteritis, subcutaneous abscess

Injury and poisoning: fall, procedural pain

Investigations: blood prolactin increased, alanine aminotransferase increased, electrocardiogram abnormal, gamma-glutamyl transferase increased, blood glucose increased, hepatic enzyme increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased, electrocardiogram QT prolonged, glucose urine present

Metabolism and nutritional disorders: anorexia, hyperglycemia

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders: posture abnormal, myalgia, back pain, buttock pain, muscular weakness, neck pain, musculoskeletal chest pain

Nervous system disorders: coordination abnormal, dystonia, tardive dyskinesia, drooling, paresthesia, dizziness postural, convulsion, akinesia, hypokinesia, dysarthria

Psychiatric disorders: insomnia, agitation, anxiety, sleep disorder, depression, initial insomnia, libido decreased, nervousness

Renal and urinary disorders: urinary incontinence

Reproductive system and breast disorders: galactorrhea, oligomenorrhea, erectile dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, gynecomastia, breast discomfort, menstruation irregular, menstruation delayed, menstrual disorder, ejaculation delayed

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: nasal congestion, pharyngolaryngeal pain, dyspnea, rhinorrhea

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: rash, eczema, pruritus generalized, pruritus

Vascular disorders: hypotension, orthostatic hypotension

Additional Adverse Reactions Reported with Oral RISPERDAL®

The following is a list of additional adverse reactions that have been reported during the clinical trial evaluation of oral RISPERDAL®, regardless of frequency of occurrence:

Blood and Lymphatic Disorders: granulocytopenia

Cardiac Disorders: atrioventricular block

Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: tinnitus

Eye Disorders: ocular hyperemia, eye discharge, eye rolling, eyelid edema, eye swelling, eyelid margin crusting, dry eye, lacrimation increased, photophobia, glaucoma

Gastrointestinal Disorders: abdominal pain upper, dysphagia, fecaloma, abdominal discomfort, fecal incontinence, lip swelling, cheilitis, aptyalism

General Disorders: thirst, feeling abnormal, gait disturbance, pitting edema, edema, chills, discomfort, generalized edema, drug withdrawal syndrome, peripheral coldness

Immune System Disorders: drug hypersensitivity

Infections and Infestations: tonsillitis, eye infection, cellulitis, otitis media, onychomycosis, acarodermatitis, bronchopneumonia, respiratory tract infection, tracheobronchitis, otitis media chronic

Investigations: body temperature increased, heart rate increased, eosinophil count increased, white blood cell count decreased, hemoglobin decreased, blood creatine phosphokinase increased, hematocrit decreased, body temperature decreased, blood pressure decreased, transaminases increased

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: polydipsia

Musculoskeletal, Connective Tissue, and Bone Disorders: joint swelling, joint stiffness, rhabdomyolysis, torticollis

Nervous System Disorders: hypertonia, balance disorder, dysarthria, unresponsive to stimuli, depressed level of consciousness, movement disorder, hypokinesia, parkinsonian rest tremor, transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident, masked facies, speech disorder, loss of consciousness, muscle contractions involuntary, akinesia, cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular disorder, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, diabetic coma, head titubation

Psychiatric Disorders: blunted affect, confusional state, middle insomnia, listlessness, anorgasmia

Renal and Urinary Disorders: enuresis, dysuria, pollakiuria

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: vaginal discharge, retrograde ejaculation, ejaculation disorder, ejaculation failure, breast enlargement

Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: epistaxis, wheezing, pneumonia aspiration, dysphonia, productive cough, pulmonary congestion, respiratory tract congestion, rales, respiratory disorder, hyperventilation, nasal edema

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: erythema, skin discoloration, skin lesion, skin disorder, rash erythematous, rash papular, hyperkeratosis, dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, rash generalized, rash maculopapular

Vascular Disorders: flushing

Discontinuations Due To Adverse Reactions

Schizophrenia

Approximately 11% (22/202) of RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients in the 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled schizophrenia trial discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, compared with 13% (13/98) who received placebo. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation in two or more RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients were: agitation (3%), depression (2%), anxiety (1%), and akathisia (1%).

Bipolar Disorder

In the 24-month double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment period of the trial assessing the efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL® CONSTA®when administered as monotherapy for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar I disorder, 1 (0.6%) of 154 RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients discontinued due to an adverse reaction (hyperglycemia).

In the 52-week double-blind phase of the placebo-controlled trial in which RISPERDAL® CONSTA® was administered as adjunctive therapy to patients with bipolar disorder in addition to continuing with their treatment as usual, approximately 4% (3/72) of RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, compared with 1.5% (1/67) of placebo-treated patients. Adverse reactions associated with discontinuation in RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated patients were: hypokinesia (one patient) and tardive dyskinesia (one patient).

Dose Dependency Of Adverse Reactions In Clinical Trials

Extrapyramidal Symptoms:

Two methods were used to measure extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in the 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing three doses of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® (25 mg, 50 mg, and 75 mg) with placebo in patients with schizophrenia, including: (1) the incidence of spontaneous reports of EPS symptoms; and (2) the change from baseline to endpoint on the total score (sum of the subscale scores for parkinsonism, dystonia, and dyskinesia) of the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS).

As shown in Table 1, the overall incidence of EPS-related adverse reactions (akathisia, dystonia, parkinsonism, and tremor) in patients treated with 25 mg RISPERDAL® CONSTA® was comparable to that of patients treated with placebo; the incidence of EPS related adverse reactions was higher in patients treated with 50 mg RISPERDAL® CONSTA® .

The median change from baseline to endpoint in total ESRS score showed no worsening in patients treated with RISPERDAL® CONSTA® compared with patients treated with placebo: 0 (placebo group); -1 (25-mg group, significantly less than the placebo group); and 0 (50-mg group).

Dystonia

Class Effect: Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups.

Changes In ECG

The electrocardiograms of 202 schizophrenic patients treated with 25 mg or 50 mg RISPERDAL® CONSTA® and 98 schizophrenic patients treated with placebo in the 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial were evaluated. Compared with placebo, there were no statistically significant differences in QTc intervals (using Fridericia's and linear correction factors) during treatment with RISPERDAL® CONSTA® .

The electrocardiograms of 227 patients with Bipolar I Disorder were evaluated in the 24-month double-blind, placebo-controlled period. There were no clinically relevant differences in QTc intervals (using Fridericia's and linear correction factors) during treatment with RISPERDAL® CONSTA® compared to placebo.

The electrocardiograms of 85 patients with bipolar disorder were evaluated in the 52-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. There were no statistically significant differences in QTc intervals (using Fridericia's and linear correction factors) during treatment with RISPERDAL® CONSTA® 25 mg, 37.5 mg, or 50 mg when administered as adjunctive treatment in addition to continuing treatment as usual compared to placebo.

Pain Assessment And Local Injection Site Reactions

The mean intensity of injection pain reported by patients with schizophrenia using a visual analog scale (0 = no pain to 100 = unbearably painful) decreased in all treatment groups from the first to the last injection (placebo: 16.7 to 12.6; 25 mg: 12.0 to 9.0; 50 mg: 18.2 to 11.8). After the sixth injection (Week 10), investigator ratings indicated that 1% of patients treated with 25 mg or 50 mg RISPERDAL® CONSTA® experienced redness, swelling, or induration at the injection site.

In a separate study to observe local-site tolerability in which RISPERDAL® CONSTA® was administered into the deltoid muscle every 2 weeks over a period of 8 weeks, no patient discontinued treatment due to local injection site pain or reaction. Clinician ratings indicated that only mild redness, swelling, or induration at the injection site was observed in subjects treated with 37.5 mg or 50 mg RISPERDAL® CONSTA® at 2 hours after deltoid injection. All ratings returned to baseline at the predose assessment of the next injection 2 weeks later. No moderate or severe reactions were observed in any subject.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of risperidone; because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency: agranulocytosis, alopecia, anaphylactic reaction, angioedema, atrial fibrillation, blood cholesterol increased, blood triglycerides increased, diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with impaired glucose metabolism, drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal, dysgeusia, hypoglycemia, hypothermia, ileus, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, mania, pancreatitis, priapism, QT prolongation, sleep apnea syndrome, thrombocytopenia, urinary retention, and water intoxication. In addition, the following adverse reactions have been observed during postapproval use of RISPERDAL® CONSTA®: cerebrovascular disorders, including cerebrovascular accidents, and diabetes mellitus aggravated.

Retinal artery occlusion after injection of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® has been reported during postmarketing surveillance. This has been reported in the presence of abnormal arteriovenous anastomosis.

Serious injection site reactions including abscess, cellulitis, cyst, hematoma, necrosis, nodule, and ulcer have been reported with RISPERDAL® CONSTA® during postmarketing surveillance. Isolated cases required surgical intervention.

Very rarely, cases of anaphylactic reaction after injection with RISPERDAL® CONSTA® have been reported during postmarketing experience in patients who have previously tolerated oral risperidone.

Read the Risperdal Consta (risperidone) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

The interactions of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® with coadministration of other drugs have not been systematically evaluated. The drug interaction data provided in this section is based on studies with oral RISPERDAL® .

Centrally-Acting Drugs And Alcohol

Given the primary CNS effects of risperidone, caution should be used when RISPERDAL® CONSTA® is administered in combination with other centrally-acting drugs or alcohol.

Drugs With Hypotensive Effects

Because of its potential for inducing hypotension, RISPERDAL® CONSTA® may enhance the hypotensive effects of other therapeutic agents with this potential.

Levodopa And Dopamine Agonists

RISPERDAL® CONSTA® may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists.

Amitriptyline

Amitriptyline did not affect the pharmacokinetics of risperidone or of risperidone and 9hydroxyrisperidone combined following concomitant administration with oral RISPERDAL® .

Cimetidine And Ranitidine

Cimetidine and ranitidine increased the bioavailability of oral risperidone by 64% and 26%, respectively. However, cimetidine did not affect the AUC of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone combined, whereas ranitidine increased the AUC of risperidone and 9hydroxyrisperidone combined by 20%.

Clozapine

Chronic administration of clozapine with risperidone may decrease the clearance of risperidone.

Lithium

Repeated doses of oral RISPERDAL® (3 mg twice daily) did not affect the exposure (AUC) or peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of lithium (n=13).

Valproate

Repeated doses of oral RISPERDAL® (4 mg once daily) did not affect the pre-dose or average plasma concentrations and exposure (AUC) of valproate (1000 mg/day in three divided doses) compared to placebo (n=21). However, there was a 20% increase in valproate peak plasma concentration (Cmax) after concomitant administration of oral RISPERDAL® .

Digoxin

Oral RISPERDAL® (0.25 mg twice daily) did not show a clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin.

Topiramate

Oral RISPERDAL® administered at doses from 1-6 mg/day concomitantly with topiramate 400 mg/day resulted in a 23% decrease in risperidone Cmax and a 33% decrease in risperidone AUC0-12 hour at steady state. Minimal reductions in the exposure to risperidone and 9hydroxyrisperidone combined, and no change for 9-hydroxyrisperidone were observed. This interaction is unlikely to be of clinical significance. There was no clinically relevant effect of oral RISPERDAL® on the pharmacokinetics of topiramate.

Drugs That Inhibit CYP 2D6 And Other CYP Isozymes

Risperidone is metabolized to 9-hydroxyrisperidone by CYP 2D6, an enzyme that is polymorphic in the population and that can be inhibited by a variety of psychotropic and other drugs [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Drug interactions that reduce the metabolism of risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone would increase the plasma concentrations of risperidone and lower the concentrations of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Analysis of clinical studies involving a modest number of poor metabolizers (n≅70 patients) does not suggest that poor and extensive metabolizers have different rates of adverse effects. No comparison of effectiveness in the two groups has been made.

In vitro studies showed that drugs metabolized by other CYP isozymes, including 1A1, 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4, are only weak inhibitors of risperidone metabolism.

Fluoxetine and Paroxetine

Fluoxetine (20 mg once daily) and paroxetine (20 mg once daily), CYP 2D6 inhibitors, have been shown to increase the plasma concentration of risperidone 2.5-2.8 fold and 3-9 fold respectively. Fluoxetine did not affect the plasma concentration of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Paroxetine lowered the concentration of 9-hydroxyrisperidone by about 10%. When either concomitant fluoxetine or paroxetine is initiated or discontinued, the physician should reevaluate the dose of RISPERDAL® CONSTA®. When initiation of fluoxetine or paroxetine is considered, patients may be placed on a lower dose of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® between 2 to 4 weeks before the planned start of fluoxetine or paroxetine therapy to adjust for the expected increase in plasma concentrations of risperidone. When fluoxetine or paroxetine is initiated in patients receiving the recommended dose of 25 mg RISPERDAL® CONSTA®, it is recommended to continue treatment with the 25-mg dose unless clinical judgment necessitates lowering the RISPERDAL® CONSTA® dose to 12.5 mg or necessitates interruption of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® treatment. When RISPERDAL® CONSTA® is initiated in patients already receiving fluoxetine or paroxetine, a starting dose of 12.5 mg can be considered. The efficacy of the 12.5 mg dose has not been investigated in clinical trials. [see also DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. The effects of discontinuation of concomitant fluoxetine or paroxetine therapy on the pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone have not been studied.

Erythromycin

There were no significant interactions between oral RISPERDAL® and erythromycin.

Carbamazepine And Other CYP 3A4 Enzyme Inducers

Carbamazepine co-administration with oral RISPERDAL® decreased the steady-state plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone by about 50%. Plasma concentrations of carbamazepine did not appear to be affected. Co-administration of other known CYP 3A4 enzyme inducers (e.g., phenytoin, rifampin, and phenobarbital) with risperidone may cause similar decreases in the combined plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9hydroxyrisperidone, which could lead to decreased efficacy of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® treatment. At the initiation of therapy with carbamazepine or other known hepatic enzyme inducers, patients should be closely monitored during the first 4-8 weeks, since the dose of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® may need to be adjusted. A dose increase, or additional oral RISPERDAL®, may need to be considered. On discontinuation of carbamazepine or other CYP 3A4 hepatic enzyme inducers, the dosage of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® should be re-evaluated and, if necessary, decreased. Patients may be placed on a lower dose of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® between 2 to 4 weeks before the planned discontinuation of carbamazepine or other CYP 3A4 enzyme inducers to adjust for the expected increase in plasma concentrations of risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone. For patients treated with the recommended dose of 25 mg RISPERDAL® CONSTA® and discontinuing from carbamazepine or other CYP 3A4 enzyme inducers, it is recommended to continue treatment with the 25-mg dose unless clinical judgment necessitates lowering the RISPERDAL® CONSTA® dose to 12.5 mg or necessitates interruption of RISPERDAL® CONSTA® treatment. The efficacy of the 12.5 mg dose has not been investigated in clinical trials. [see also DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]

Drugs Metabolized By CYP 2D6

In vitro studies indicate that risperidone is a relatively weak inhibitor of CYP 2D6. Therefore, RISPERDAL® CONSTA® is not expected to substantially inhibit the clearance of drugs that are metabolized by this enzymatic pathway. In drug interaction studies, oral RISPERDAL® did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of donepezil and galantamine, which are metabolized by CYP 2D6.

Drug Abuse And Dependence

Controlled Substance

RISPERDAL® CONSTA® (risperidone) is not a controlled substance.

Abuse

RISPERDAL® CONSTA® has not been systematically studied in animals or humans for its potential for abuse. Because RISPERDAL® CONSTA® is to be administered by health care professionals, the potential for misuse or abuse by patients is low.

Dependence

RISPERDAL® CONSTA® has not been systematically studied in animals or humans for its potential for tolerance or physical dependence.

Read the Risperdal Consta Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Last reviewed on RxList: 6/23/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects
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