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Increased Mortality In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear.
In two of four placebo-controlled trials in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, a higher incidence of mortality was observed in patients treated with furosemide plus RISPERDAL® when compared to patients treated with RISPERDAL® alone or with placebo plus furosemide. No pathological mechanism has been identified to explain this finding, and no consistent pattern for cause of death was observed.
RISPERDAL® (risperidone) is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis [see BOXED WARNING].
Cerebrovascular Adverse Reactions, Including Stroke, In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis
Cerebrovascular adverse reactions (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, were reported in patients (mean age 85 years; range 73-97) in trials of risperidone in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. In placebo-controlled trials, there was a significantly higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events in patients treated with risperidone compared to patients treated with placebo. RISPERDAL® is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. [see BOXED WARNING and Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis]
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Antipsychotic drugs including RISPERDAL® can cause a potentially fatal symptom complex referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). Clinical manifestations of NMS include hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK), myoglobinuria, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases in which the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology.
The management of NMS should include: (1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; (2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and (3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.
If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses.
There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment, itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.
Given these considerations, prescribe RISPERDAL® in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that: (1) is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs, and (2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.
If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient treated with RISPERDAL®, consider drug discontinuation. However, some patients may require treatment with RISPERDAL® despite the presence of the syndrome.
Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. These metabolic changes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and body weight gain. While all of the drugs in the class have been shown to produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile.
Hyperglycemia And Diabetes Mellitus
Hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, have been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics including RISPERDAL®. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Given these confounders, the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and hyperglycemia-related adverse events is not completely understood. However, epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of treatment-emergent hyperglycemia-related adverse events in patients treated with the atypical antipsychotics. Precise risk estimates for hyperglycemia-related adverse events in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics are not available.
Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics, including RISPERDAL®, should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (e.g., obesity, family history of diabetes) who are starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics, including RISPERDAL®, should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics, including RISPERDAL®, should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics, including RISPERDAL®, should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic, including RISPERDAL®, was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of RISPERDAL®.
Pooled data from three double-blind, placebo-controlled schizophrenia studies and four double-blind, placebo-controlled bipolar monotherapy studies are presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Change in Random Glucose from Seven
Placebo-Controlled, 3-to 8-Week, Fixed- or Flexible-Dose Studies in Adult
Subjects with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Mania
|1-8 mg/day Mean change from baseline (mg/dL)
| > 8-16 mg/day
|Serum Glucose||-1.4||0.8 Proportion of patients with shifts||0.6|
|Serum Glucose ( < 140 mg/dL to ≥ 200 mg/dL)||0.6% (3/525)||0.4% (3/702)||0% (0/158)|
In longer-term, controlled and uncontrolled studies, RISPERDAL® was associated with a mean change in glucose of +2.8 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=151) and +4.1 mg/dL at Week 48 (n=50).
Data from the placebo-controlled 3- to 6-week study in children and adolescents with schizophrenia (13-17 years of age), bipolar mania (10-17 years of age), or autistic disorder (5 to 17 years of age) are presented in Table 3.
Table 3: Change in Fasting
Glucose from Three Placebo-Controlled, 3- to 6-Week, Fixed-Dose Studies in
Children and Adolescents with Schizophrenia (13-17 years of age), Bipolar Mania
(10-17 years of age), or Autistic Disorder (5 to 17 years of age)
|Placebo||RISPERDAL® 0.5-6 mg/day|
|Mean change from baseline (mg/dL)|
|Proportion of patients with shifts|
|Serum Glucose ( < 100 mg/dL to ≥ 126 mg/dL)||0% (0/64)||0.8% (1/120)|
In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label extension pediatric studies, RISPERDAL® was associated with a mean change in fasting glucose of +5.2 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=119).
Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.
Pooled data from 7 placebo-controlled, 3- to 8- week, fixed- or flexible-dose studies in adult subjects with schizophrenia or bipolar mania are presented in Table 4.
Table 4: Change in Random Lipids from Seven
Placebo-Controlled, 3-to 8-Week, Fixed- or Flexible-Dose Studies in Adult
Subjects with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Mania
|1-8 mg/day||> 8-16 mg/day|
|Mean change from baseline (mg/dL)|
|Change from baseline||0.6||6.9||1.8|
|Change from baseline||-17.4||-4.9||-8.3|
|Cholesterol ( < 200 mg/dL to ≥ 240 mg/dL)||Proportion of patients With Shifts|
|Triglycerides ( < 500 mg/dL to ≥ 500 mg/dL)||1.1%||2.7%||2.5%|
In longer-term, controlled and uncontrolled studies, RISPERDAL® was associated with a mean change in (a) non-fasting cholesterol of +4.4 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=231) and +5.5 mg/dL at Week 48 (n=86); and (b) non-fasting triglycerides of +19.9 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=52).
Pooled data from 3 placebo-controlled, 3- to 6-week, fixed-dose studies in children and adolescents with schizophrenia (13-17 years of age), bipolar mania (10-17 years of age), or autistic disorder (5-17 years of age) are presented in Table 5.
Table 5: Change in Fasting Lipids from Three
Placebo-Controlled, 3-to 6-Week, Fixed-Dose Studies in Children and Adolescents
with Schizophrenia (13-17 Years of Age), Bipolar Mania (10-17 Years of Age), or
Autistic Disorder (5 to 17 Years of Age)
|Placebo||RISPERDAL® 0.5-6 mg/day|
|Mean change from baseline (mg/dL)|
|Change from baseline||0.3||-0.3|
|Change from baseline||3.7||0.5|
|Change from baseline||1.6||-1.9|
|Change from baseline||-9.0||-2.6|
|Proportion of patients with shifts|
|Cholesterol ( < 170 mg/dL to ≥ 200 mg/dL)||2.4% (1/42)||3.8% (3/80)|
|LDL ( < 110 mg/dL to ≥ 130 mg/dL)||0% (0/16)||0% (0/16)|
|HDL ( ≥ 40 mg/dL to < 40 mg/dL)||0% (0/19)||10% (2/20)|
|Triglycerides ( < 150 mg/dL to ≥ 200 mg/dL)||1.5% (1/65)||7.1% (8/113)|
In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label extension pediatric studies, RISPERDAL® was associated with a mean change in (a) fasting cholesterol of +2.1 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=114); (b) fasting LDL of -0.2 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=103); (c) fasting HDL of +0.4 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=103); and (d) fasting triglycerides of +6.8 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=120).
Weight gain has been observed with atypical antipsychotic use. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended.
Data on mean changes in body weight and the proportion of subjects meeting a weight gain criterion of 7% or greater of body weight from 7 placebo-controlled, 3- to 8- week, fixed- or flexible-dose studies in adult subjects with schizophrenia or bipolar mania are presented in Table 6.
Table 6: Mean Change in Body Weight (kg) and the
Proportion of Subjects with ≥ 7% Gain in Body Weight From Seven
Placebo-Controlled, 3- to 8-Week, Fixed- or Flexible-Dose Studies in Adult
Subjects With Schizophrenia or Bipolar Mania
| > 8-16 mg/day
|Change from baseline||-0.3||0.7||2.2|
|≥ 7% increase from baseline||2.9%||8.7%||20.9%|
In longer-term, controlled and uncontrolled studies, RISPERDAL® was associated with a mean change in weight of +4.3 kg at Week 24 (n=395) and +5.3 kg at Week 48 (n=203).
Data on mean changes in body weight and the proportion of subjects meeting the criterion of ≥ 7% gain in body weight from nine placebo-controlled, 3- to 8-week, fixed-dose studies in children and adolescents with schizophrenia (13-17 years of age), bipolar mania (10-17 years of age), autistic disorder (5-17 years of age), or other psychiatric disorders (5-17 years of age) are presented in Table 7.
Table 7: Mean Change in Body
Weight (kg) and the Proportion of Subjects With ≥ 7% Gain in Body Weight
From Nine Placebo-Controlled, 3- to 8-Week, Fixed-Dose Studies in Children and
Adolescents With Schizophrenia (13-17 Years of Age), Bipolar Mania (10-17 Years
of Age), Autistic Disorder (5 to 17 Years of Age) or Other Psychiatric
Disorders (5-17 Years of Age)
|Placebo (n=375)||RISPERDAL® 0.5-6 mg/day (n=448)|
|Change from baseline||0.6||2.0|
|≥ 7% increase from baseline||6.9%||32.6%|
In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label extension pediatric studies, RISPERDAL® was associated with a mean change in weight of +5.5 kg at Week 24 (n=748) and +8.0 kg at Week 48 (n=242).
In a long-term, open-label extension study in adolescent patients with schizophrenia, weight increase was reported as a treatment-emergent adverse event in 14% of patients. In 103 adolescent patients with schizophrenia, a mean increase of 9.0 kg was observed after 8 months of RISPERDAL® treatment. The majority of that increase was observed within the first 6 months. The average percentiles at baseline and 8 months, respectively, were 56 and 72 for weight, 55 and 58 for height, and 51 and 71 for body mass index.
In long-term, open-label trials (studies in patients with autistic disorder or other psychiatric disorders), a mean increase of 7.5 kg after 12 months of RISPERDAL® treatment was observed, which was higher than the expected normal weight gain (approximately 3 to 3.5 kg per year adjusted for age, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention normative data). The majority of that increase occurred within the first 6 months of exposure to RISPERDAL®. The average percentiles at baseline and 12 months, respectively, were 49 and 60 for weight, 48 and 53 for height, and 50 and 62 for body mass index.
In one 3-week, placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescent patients with acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder, increases in body weight were higher in the RISPERDAL® groups than the placebo group, but not dose related (1.90 kg in the RISPERDAL® 0.5-2.5 mg group, 1.44 kg in the RISPERDAL® 3-6 mg group, and 0.65 kg in the placebo group). A similar trend was observed in the mean change from baseline in body mass index.
When treating pediatric patients with RISPERDAL® for any indication, weight gain should be assessed against that expected with normal growth.
As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, RISPERDAL® elevates prolactin levels and the elevation persists during chronic administration. RISPERDAL® is associated with higher levels of prolactin elevation than other antipsychotic agents.
Hyperprolactinemia may suppress hypothalamic GnRH, resulting in reduced pituitary gonadotropin secretion. This, in turn, may inhibit reproductive function by impairing gonadal steroidogenesis in both female and male patients. Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported in patients receiving prolactin-elevating compounds. Long-standing hyperprolactinemia when associated with hypogonadism may lead to decreased bone density in both female and male subjects.
Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin dependent in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with previously detected breast cancer. An increase in pituitary gland, mammary gland, and pancreatic islet cell neoplasia (mammary adenocarcinomas, pituitary and pancreatic adenomas) was observed in the risperidone carcinogenicity studies conducted in mice and rats [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date have shown an association between chronic administration of this class of drugs and tumorigenesis in humans; the available evidence is considered too limited to be conclusive at this time.
RISPERDAL® may induce orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, and in some patients, syncope, especially during the initial dose-titration period, probably reflecting its alpha-adrenergic antagonistic properties. Syncope was reported in 0.2% (6/2607) of RISPERDAL®-treated patients in Phase 2 and 3 studies in adults with schizophrenia. The risk of orthostatic hypotension and syncope may be minimized by limiting the initial dose to 2 mg total (either once daily or 1 mg twice daily) in normal adults and 0.5 mg twice daily in the elderly and patients with renal or hepatic impairment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Monitoring of orthostatic vital signs should be considered in patients for whom this is of concern. A dose reduction should be considered if hypotension occurs. RISPERDAL® should be used with particular caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemia, heart failure, or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, and conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension, e.g., dehydration and hypovolemia. Clinically significant hypotension has been observed with concomitant use of RISPERDAL® and antihypertensive medication.
Leukopenia, Neutropenia, And Agranulocytosis
In clinical trial and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including RISPERDAL® . Agranulocytosis has also been reported.
Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC or a drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and discontinuation of RISPERDAL® should be considered at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.
Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 1000/mm³) should discontinue RISPERDAL® and have their WBC followed until recovery.
Potential For Cognitive And Motor Impairment
Somnolence was a commonly reported adverse reaction associated with RISPERDAL® treatment, especially when ascertained by direct questioning of patients. This adverse reaction is dose-related, and in a study utilizing a checklist to detect adverse events, 41% of the high-dose patients (RISPERDAL® 16 mg/day) reported somnolence compared to 16% of placebo patients.
Direct questioning is more sensitive for detecting adverse events than spontaneous reporting, by which 8% of RISPERDAL® 16 mg/day patients and 1% of placebo patients reported somnolence as an adverse reaction. Since RISPERDAL® has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that RISPERDAL® therapy does not affect them adversely.
During premarketing testing in adult patients with schizophrenia, seizures occurred in 0.3% (9/2607) of RISPERDAL®-treated patients, two in association with hyponatremia. RISPERDAL® should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures.
Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced Alzheimer's dementia. RISPERDAL® and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia. [see BOXED WARNING and Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis]
Priapism has been reported during postmarketing surveillance. Severe priapism may require surgical intervention.
Body Temperature Regulation
Disruption of body temperature regulation has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Both hyperthermia and hypothermia have been reported in association with oral RISPERDAL® use. Caution is advised when prescribing for patients who will be exposed to temperature extremes.
Patients With Phenylketonuria
Inform patients that RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablets contain phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is a component of aspartame. Each 4 mg RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablet contains 0.84 mg phenylalanine; each 3 mg RISPERDAL® MTAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablet contains 0.63 mg phenylalanine; each 2 mg RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablet contains 0.42 mg phenylalanine; each 1 mg RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablet contains 0.28 mg phenylalanine; and each 0.5 mg RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablet contains 0.14 mg phenylalanine.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats. Risperidone was administered in the diet at doses of 0.63 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg for 18 months to mice and for 25 months to rats. These doses are equivalent to approximately 2, 9, and 38 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for schizophrenia of 16 mg/day on a mg/kg basis or 0.2, 0.75, and 3 times the MRHD (mice) or 0.4, 1.5, and 6 times the MRHD (rats) on a mg/m² body surface basis. A maximum tolerated dose was not achieved in male mice. There were statistically significant increases in pituitary gland adenomas, endocrine pancreas adenomas, and mammary gland adenocarcinomas. The table below summarizes the multiples of the human dose on a mg/m² (mg/kg) basis at which these tumors occurred.
|Tumor Type||Species||Sex||Multiples of Maximum Human Dose in mg/m2 (mg/kg)|
|Lowest Effect Level||Highest No-Effect Level|
|Pituitary adenomas||mouse||female||0.75 (9.4)||0.2 (2.4)|
|Endocrine pancreas adenomas||rat||male||1.5 (9.4)||0.4 (2.4)|
|Mammary gland adenocarcinomas||mouse||female||0.2 (2.4)||none|
|rat||male||6.0 (37.5)||1.5 (9.4)|
|Mammary gland neoplasm, Total||rat||male||1.5 (9.4)||0.4 (2.4)|
Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to chronically elevate prolactin levels in rodents. Serum prolactin levels were not measured during the risperidone carcinogenicity studies; however, measurements during subchronic toxicity studies showed that risperidone elevated serum prolactin levels 5-6 fold in mice and rats at the same doses used in the carcinogenicity studies. An increase in mammary, pituitary, and endocrine pancreas neoplasms has been found in rodents after chronic administration of other antipsychotic drugs and is considered to be prolactin-mediated. The relevance for human risk of the findings of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is unknown [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
No evidence of mutagenic or clastogenic potential for risperidone was found in the Ames gene mutation test, the mouse lymphoma assay, the in vitro rat hepatocyte DNA-repair assay, the in vivo micronucleus test in mice, the sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila, or the chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes or Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Impairment Of Fertility
Risperidone (0.16 to 5 mg/kg) was shown to impair mating, but not fertility, in Wistar rats in three reproductive studies (two Segment I and a multigenerational study) at doses 0.1 to 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m² body surface area basis. The effect appeared to be in females, since impaired mating behavior was not noted in the Segment I study in which males only were treated. In a subchronic study in Beagle dogs in which risperidone was administered orally at doses of 0.31 to 5 mg/kg, sperm motility and concentration were decreased at doses 0.6 to 10 times the MRHD on a mg/m² body surface area basis. Dose-related decreases were also noted in serum testosterone at the same doses. Serum testosterone and sperm parameters partially recovered, but remained decreased after treatment was discontinued. A no-effect dose could not be determined in either rat or dog.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Adequate and well controlled studies with RISPERDAL have not been conducted in pregnant women. Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including RISPERDAL®) during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There was no increase in the incidence of malformations in embryo-fetal studies in rats and rabbits at 0.4–6 times MHRD. Increased pup mortality was noted at all doses in peripostnatal studies in rats. RISPERDAL® should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Monitor neonates exhibiting extrapyramidal or withdrawal symptoms. Some neonates recover within hours or days without specific treatment; others may require prolonged hospitalization.
There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder in neonates following in utero exposure to antipsychotics in the third trimester. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization.
There was one report of a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum in an infant exposed to risperidone in utero. The causal relationship to RISPERDAL® therapy is unknown.
The teratogenic potential of risperidone was studied in three Segment II studies in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats (0.63-10 mg/kg or 0.4 to 6 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m² body surface area basis) and in one Segment II study in New Zealand rabbits (0.31-5 mg/kg or 0.4 to 6 times the MRHD on a mg/m² body surface area basis). There were no teratogenic effects in offspring of rats or rabbits given 0.4 to 6 times the MRHD on a mg/m² body surface area basis. In three reproductive studies in rats (two Segment III and a multigenerational study), there was an increase in pup deaths during the first 4 days of lactation at doses of 0.16-5 mg/kg or 0.1 to 3 times the MRHD on a mg/m² body surface area basis. It is not known whether these deaths were due to a direct effect on the fetuses or pups or to effects on the dams.
There was no no-effect dose for increased rat pup mortality. In one Segment III study, there was an increase in stillborn rat pups at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg or 1.5 times the MRHD on a mg/m² body surface area basis. In a cross-fostering study in Wistar rats, toxic effects on the fetus or pups were observed, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of live pups and an increase in the number of dead pups at birth (Day 0), and a decrease in birth weight in pups of drug-treated dams. In addition, there was an increase in deaths by Day 1 among pups of drug-treated dams, regardless of whether or not the pups were cross-fostered. Risperidone also appeared to impair maternal behavior in that pup body weight gain and survival (from Day 1 to 4 of lactation) were reduced in pups born to control but reared by drug-treated dams. These effects were all noted at the one dose of risperidone tested, i.e., 5 mg/kg or 3 times the MRHD on a mg/m² body surface area basis.
Placental transfer of risperidone occurs in rat pups.
Labor And Delivery
The effect of RISPERDAL® on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.
Risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone are present in human breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from risperidone, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Approved Pediatric Indications
The efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL® in the treatment of schizophrenia were demonstrated in 417 adolescents, aged 13 – 17 years, in two short-term (6 and 8 weeks, respectively) double-blind controlled trials [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and Clinical Studies]. Additional safety and efficacy information was also assessed in one long-term (6-month) open-label extension study in 284 of these adolescent patients with schizophrenia.
Safety and effectiveness of RISPERDAL® in children less than 13 years of age with schizophrenia have not been established.
Bipolar I Disorder
The efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL® in the short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder in 169 children and adolescent patients, aged 10 – 17 years, were demonstrated in one double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week trial [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and Clinical Studies].
Safety and effectiveness of RISPERDAL® in children less than 10 years of age with bipolar disorder have not been established.
The efficacy and safety of RISPERDAL® in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder were established in two 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in 156 children and adolescent patients, aged 5 to 16 years [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE, ADVERSE REACTIONS and Clinical Studies]. Additional safety information was also assessed in a long-term study in patients with autistic disorder, or in short- and long-term studies in more than 1200 pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania who were of similar age and weight, and who received similar dosages of RISPERDAL® as patients treated for irritability associated with autistic disorder.
A third study was a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a lower than recommended dose of risperidone in subjects 5 to 17 years of age with autistic disorder and associated irritability, and related behavioral symptoms. There were two weight-based, fixed doses of risperidone (high-dose and low-dose). The high dose was 1.25 mg per day for patients weighing 20 to < 45 kg, and it was 1.75 mg per day for patients weighing > 45 kg. The low dose was 0.125 mg per day for patients for patients weighing 20 to < 45 kg, and it was 0.175 mg per day for patients weighing > 45 kg. The study demonstrated the efficacy of high-dose risperidone, but it did not demonstrate efficacy for low-dose risperidone.
Adverse Reactions In Pediatric Patients
In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents treated with RISPERDAL®, 2 (0.1%) patients were reported to have tardive dyskinesia, which resolved on discontinuation of RISPERDAL® treatment [see also WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Weight gain has been observed in children and adolescents during treatment with RISPERDAL® . Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended during treatment.
Data derive from short-term placebo-controlled trials and longer-term uncontrolled studies in pediatric patients (ages 5 to 17 years) with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autistic disorder, or other psychiatric disorders. In the short-term trials (3 to 8 weeks), the mean weight gain for RISPERDAL®-treated patients was 2 kg, compared to 0.6 kg for placebo-treated patients. In these trials, approximately 33% of the RISPERDAL® group had weight gain > 7%, compared to 7% in the placebo group. In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label pediatric studies, the mean weight gain was 5.5 kg at Week 24 and 8 kg at Week 48 [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Somnolence was frequently observed in placebo-controlled clinical trials of pediatric patients with autistic disorder. Most cases were mild or moderate in severity. These events were most often of early onset with peak incidence occurring during the first two weeks of treatment, and transient with a median duration of 16 days. Somnolence was the most commonly observed adverse reaction in the clinical trial of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, as well as in the schizophrenia trials in adolescents. As was seen in the autistic disorder trials, these adverse reactions were most often of early onset and transient in duration [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a change in dosing regimen [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
RISPERDAL® has been shown to elevate prolactin levels in children and adolescents as well as in adults [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of up to 8 weeks duration in children and adolescents (aged 5 to 17 years) with autistic disorder or psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania, 49% of patients who received RISPERDAL® had elevated prolactin levels compared to 2% of patients who received placebo. Similarly, in placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years) with bipolar disorder, or adolescents (aged 13 to 17 years) with schizophrenia, 82–87% of patients who received RISPERDAL® had elevated levels of prolactin compared to 3-7% of patients on placebo. Increases were dose-dependent and generally greater in females than in males across indications.
In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents, galactorrhea was reported in 0.8% of RISPERDAL®-treated patients and gynecomastia was reported in 2.3% of RISPERDAL®-treated patients.
Growth And Sexual Maturation
The long-term effects of RISPERDAL® on growth and sexual maturation have not been fully evaluated in children and adolescents.
Juvenile Animal Studies
Juvenile dogs were treated for 40 weeks with oral risperidone doses of 0.31, 1.25, or 5 mg/kg/day. Decreased bone length and density were seen, with a no-effect dose of 0.31 mg/kg/day. This dose produced plasma levels (AUC) of risperidone plus its active metabolite paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone) which were similar to those in children and adolescents receiving the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 6 mg/day. In addition, a delay in sexual maturation was seen at all doses in both males and females. The above effects showed little or no reversibility in females after a 12 week drug-free recovery period.
In a study in which juvenile rats were treated with oral risperidone from days 12 to 50 of age, a reversible impairment of performance in a test of learning and memory was seen, in females only, with a no-effect dose of 0.63 mg/kg/day. This dose produced plasma levels (AUC) of risperidone plus paliperidone about half those observed in humans at the MRHD. No other consistent effects on neurobehavioral or reproductive development were seen up to the highest testable dose (1.25 mg/kg/day). This dose produced plasma levels (AUC) of risperidone plus paliperidone which were about two thirds of those observed in humans at the MRHD.
Clinical studies of RISPERDAL® in the treatment of schizophrenia did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether or not they respond differently than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, a lower starting dose is recommended for an elderly patient, reflecting a decreased pharmacokinetic clearance in the elderly, as well as a greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. While elderly patients exhibit a greater tendency to orthostatic hypotension, its risk in the elderly may be minimized by limiting the initial dose to 0.5 mg twice daily followed by careful titration [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Monitoring of orthostatic vital signs should be considered in patients for whom this is of concern.
This drug is substantially excreted by the kidneys, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
In patients with moderate to severe (Clcr 59 to 15 mL/min) renal disease, clearance of the sum of risperidone and its active metabolite decreased by 60%, compared to young healthy subjects. RISPERDAL® doses should be reduced in patients with renal disease [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
While the pharmacokinetics of risperidone in subjects with liver disease were comparable to those in young healthy subjects, the mean free fraction of risperidone in plasma was increased by about 35% because of the diminished concentration of both albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein. RISPERDAL® doses should be reduced in patients with liver disease [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Patients With Parkinson's Disease Or Lewy Body Dementia
Patients with Parkinson's Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies can experience increased sensitivity to RISPERDAL®. Manifestations can include confusion, obtundation, postural instability with frequent falls, extrapyramidal symptoms, and clinical features consistent with neuroleptic malignant syndrome.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/1/2016
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