William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What is running?
- What's the history of running?
- Why run?
- What are the health benefits of running?
- What are the fitness benefits of running?
- What about running and burning fat?
- What about running and losing weight?
- What about running vs. walking for weight loss?
- What about running outdoors vs. a treadmill?
- What about the risk of running injuries?
- How much running do I need to do?
- What are proper running techniques?
- What shoes should I wear when running?
- What type of foot strike do I have?
- What are some other tips on buying running shoes?
- What type of clothing should be worn during running?
- How do I go about getting started?
- Where can I find resources on running?
What are the fitness benefits of running?
Cardiorespiratory fitness (aerobic fitness or "cardio") is the ability of your heart to pump stronger and more efficiently and your muscles to use oxygen more efficiently. As you get more aerobically fit, your heart will pump more blood and oxygen with each beat (this is called "stroke volume") and your muscles will extract (or consume) more oxygen. For instance, if you have 100 oxygen molecules floating around in your bloodstream, a conditioned muscle might consume 75 molecules, whereas a deconditioned muscle might only consume 30, or even fewer than that. In fact, elite distance runners can be as much as three times more efficient at consuming oxygen than sedentary individuals. Running improves your aerobic fitness by increasing the activity of enzymes and hormones that stimulate the muscles and the heart to work more efficiently.
What about running and burning fat?
For years, I've been asked if running burns more fat than other exercises. My hunch was that it might, but there was never any proof. In particular, I was always perplexed by the fact that swimming burns so many calories (in some cases even more than running), yet when you look at the physiques of Olympic swimmers and compare them to elite long-distance runners, you see a more defined, cut and leaner physique on the runner. Adjusting for something called self-selection, where individuals of a certain body type might select a specific sport (for example, lean people might choose long-distance running because they already have the body type for it), I never fully understood why swimmers and some other endurance athletes weren't quite as lean as runners. Then I read a study comparing fat burning in running and uphill walking to cycling and it turned out that fat burning was 28% higher during running and walking uphill than it was during cycling. The authors of the study aren't sure why this is so, but it is suggested that the pounding of weight-bearing activities like walking and running may cause more fat burning than a seated exercise like biking, or an activity like swimming where there is no pounding at all. This is intriguing research, but more needs to be done before we truly sort out these issues.
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