"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Aptiom (eslicarbazepine acetate) as an add-on medication to treat seizures associated with epilepsy.
Epilepsy is a brain disorder caused by abnormal or excessive activity in the brain"...
Because of the risk of vision loss, and because, when it is effective, SABRIL provides an observable symptomatic benefit, patient response and continued need for treatment should be periodically assessed.
In patients with refractory complex partial seizures, SABRIL should be withdrawn if a substantial clinical benefit is not observed within 3 months of initiating treatment. If, in the clinical judgment of the prescriber, evidence of treatment failure becomes obvious earlier than 3 months, treatment should be discontinued at that time.
In patients with infantile spasms, SABRIL should be withdrawn if a substantial clinical benefit is not observed within 2 to 4 weeks. If, in the clinical judgment of the prescriber, evidence of treatment failure becomes obvious earlier than 2 to 4 weeks, treatment should be discontinued at that time [see BOXED WARNING].
Monitoring of Vision
Monitoring of vision by an ophthalmic professional with expertise in visual field interpretation and the ability to perform dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy of the retina is required, unless a patient is formally exempted from periodic ophthalmologic assessment as documented in the Support, Help And Resources for Epilepsy (SHARE) program [see SABRIL SHARE Program]. Because vision testing in infants is difficult, vision loss may not be detected until it is severe. For patients receiving SABRIL who are not exempted, vision assessment is required at baseline (no later than 4 weeks after starting SABRIL) and at least every 3 months while on therapy and about 3-6 months after the discontinuation of therapy.
The diagnostic approach should be individualized for the patient and clinical situation. For all patients, attempts to monitor vision periodically and/or formal exemptions must be documented under the SHARE program. In adults and cooperative pediatric patients, perimetry is recommended, preferably by automated threshold visual field testing. Additional testing may also include electrophysiology (e.g., electroretinography [ERG]), retinal imaging (e.g., optical coherence tomography [OCT]), and/or other methods appropriate for the patient, but this additional testing is not required. In patients exempted from vision testing, treatment may continue according to clinical judgment, with appropriate patient counseling and with documentation in the SHARE program of the exemption. Because of variability, results from ophthalmic monitoring must be interpreted with caution, and repeat assessment is recommended if results are abnormal or uninterpretable. Repeat assessment in the first few weeks of treatment is recommended to establish if, and to what degree, reproducible results can be obtained, and to guide selection of appropriate ongoing monitoring for the patient.
The onset and progression of vision loss from SABRIL is unpredictable, and it may occur or worsen precipitously between assessments. Once detected, vision loss due to SABRIL is not reversible. It is expected that even with frequent monitoring, some
SABRIL patients will develop severe vision loss. Drug discontinuation should be considered, balancing benefit and risk, if visual loss is documented.
SABRIL SHARE Program
SABRIL is available only through a restricted distribution program called the SHARE program, because of the risk of vision loss.
Notable requirements components of the SHARE Program include the following:
- Prescribers must be certified with the program by
enrolling and reviewing educational materials and comply with the following:
- Assess vision prior to initiating therapy and then every 3 months during therapy.
- Remove patients from SABRIL therapy if the patients do not experience a meaningful reduction in seizures.
- The prescriber may, with appropriate documentation and
caregiver counseling, exempt certain patients from vision assessment, using the
Ophthalmologic Assessment Form, if:
- The patient is blind (subsequent Ophthalmologic Assessment Forms do not need to be submitted to the REMS coordinating center)
- The patient's general neurological and/or mental condition permanently precludes the need for visual assessment (subsequent Ophthalmologic Assessment Forms do not need to be submitted to the REMS coordinating center)
- The patient's general neurological condition temporarily precludes the ability to assess visual function. The evaluation, however, may be performed at a later time as clinically appropriate.
- The patient's medical condition prevents visual assessment being performed safely
- For other reasons specified by the prescriber
- Patient/parent/legal guardian must understand the risks and benefits and sign a Patient-Prescriber Agreement.
- Pharmacies that dispense SABRIL must be certified and agree to comply with the REMS requirements. Certified pharmacies must only dispense SABRIL to patients who are enrolled in the program.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Abnormalities in Infants
Abnormal MRI signal changes characterized by increased T2 signal and restricted diffusion in a symmetric pattern involving the thalamus, basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum have been observed in some infants treated with vigabatrin for infantile spasms. In a retrospective epidemiologic study in infants with IS (N=205), the prevalence of these changes was 22% in vigabatrin treated patients versus 4% in patients treated with other therapies.
In the study above, in post marketing experience, and in published literature reports, these changes generally resolved with discontinuation of treatment. In a few patients, the lesion resolved despite continued use. It has been reported that some infants exhibited coincident motor abnormalities, but no causal relationship has been established and the potential for long-term clinical sequelae has not been adequately studied.
Neurotoxicity (brain histopathology and neurobehavioral abnormalities) was observed in rats exposed to vigabatrin during late gestation and the neonatal and juvenile periods of development. The relationship between these findings and the abnormal MRI findings in infants treated with vigabatrin for infantile spasms is unknown [see Neurotoxicity and Use in Specific Populations].
The specific pattern of signal changes observed in IS patients was not observed in older pediatric and adult patients treated with vigabatrin for refractory CPS. In a blinded review of MRI images obtained in prospective clinical trials in patients with refractory CPS 3 years and older (N=656), no difference was observed in anatomic distribution or prevalence of MRI signal changes between vigabatrin treated and placebo treated patients.
For adults treated with SABRIL, routine MRI surveillance is unnecessary as there is no evidence that vigabatrin causes MRI changes in this population.
Vacuolation, characterized by fluid accumulation and separation of the outer layers of myelin, has been observed in brain white matter tracts in adult and juvenile rats and adult mice, dogs, and possibly monkeys following administration of vigabatrin. This lesion, referred to as intramyelinic edema (IME), was seen in animals at doses within the human therapeutic range. A no-effect dose was not established in rodents or dogs. In the rat and dog, vacuolation was reversible following discontinuation of vigabatrin treatment, but, in the rat, pathologic changes consisting of swollen or degenerating axons, mineralization, and gliosis were seen in brain areas in which vacuolation had been previously observed. Vacuolation in adult animals was correlated with alterations in MRI and changes in visual and somatosensory evoked potentials (EP).
Administration of vigabatrin to rats during the neonatal and juvenile periods of development produced vacuolar changes in the brain gray matter (areas including the thalamus, midbrain, deep cerebellar nuclei, substantia nigra, hippocampus, and forebrain) which are considered distinct from the IME observed in vigabatrin treated adult animals. Decreased myelination and evidence of oligodendrocyte injury were additional findings in the brains of vigabatrin-treated rats. An increase in apoptosis was seen in some brain regions following vigabatrin exposure during the early postnatal period. Long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities (convulsions, neuromotor impairment, learning deficits) were also observed following vigabatrin treatment of young rats. These effects in young animals occurred at doses lower than those producing neurotoxicity in adult animals and were associated with plasma vigabatrin levels substantially lower than those achieved clinically in infants and children [see Use In Specific Populations].
In a published study, vigabatrin (200, 400 mg/kg/day) induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the brain of young rats when administered by intraperitoneal injection on postnatal days 5-7.
Administration of vigabatrin to female rats during pregnancy and lactation at doses below those used clinically resulted in hippocampal vacuolation and convulsions in the mature offspring.
Abnormal MRI signal changes characterized by increased T2 signal and restricted diffusion in a symmetric pattern involving the thalamus, basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum have been observed in some infants treated for IS with vigabatrin. Studies of the effects of vigabatrin on MRI and EP in adult epilepsy patients have demonstrated no clear-cut abnormalities [see Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Abnormalities in Infants].
Suicidal Behavior and Ideation
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including SABRIL, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.
Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug treated patients in the trials and none in placebo treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.
The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5-100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed. Table 4 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.
Table 4: Risk by Indication for Antiepileptic Drugs in
the Pooled Analysis
|Indication||Placebo Patients with Events per 1000 Patients||Drug Patients with Events per 1000 Patients||Relative Risk: Incidence of Drug Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients||Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events per 1000 Patients|
The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.
Anyone considering prescribing SABRIL or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.
Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.
Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs)
As with all AEDs, SABRIL should be withdrawn gradually. Patients and caregivers should be told not to suddenly discontinue SABRIL therapy.
In controlled clinical studies in adults with complex partial seizures, SABRIL was tapered by decreasing the daily dose 1000 mg/day on a weekly basis until discontinued.
In a controlled study in pediatric patients with complex partial seizures, SABRIL was tapered by decreasing the daily dose by one third every week for three weeks.
In a controlled clinical study in patients with infantile spasms, SABRIL was tapered by decreasing the daily dose at a rate of 25-50 mg/kg every 3-4 days [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
In North American controlled trials in adults, 6% of patients (16/280) receiving SABRIL and 2% of patients (3/188) receiving placebo had adverse events of anemia and/or met criteria for potentially clinically important hematology changes involving hemoglobin, hematocrit, and/or RBC indices. Across U.S. controlled trials, there were mean decreases in hemoglobin of about 3% and 0% in SABRIL and placebo treated patients, respectively, and a mean decrease in hematocrit of about 1% in SABRIL treated patients compared to a mean gain of about 1% in patients treated with placebo.
In controlled and open label epilepsy trials in adults and pediatric patients, 3 SABRIL patients (0.06%, 3/4855) discontinued for anemia and 2 SABRIL patients experienced unexplained declines in hemoglobin to below 8 g/dL and/or hematocrit below 24%.
Somnolence and Fatigue
SABRIL causes somnolence and fatigue. Patients should be advised not to drive a car or operate other complex machinery until they are familiar with the effects of SABRIL on their ability to perform such activities.
Pooled data from two SABRIL controlled trials in adults demonstrated that 24% (54/222) of SABRIL patients experienced somnolence compared to 10% (14/135) of placebo patients. In those same studies, 28% of SABRIL patients experienced fatigue compared to 15% (20/135) of placebo patients. Almost 1% of SABRIL patients discontinued from clinical trials for somnolence and almost 1% discontinued for fatigue.
Pooled data from three SABRIL controlled trials in pediatric patients demonstrated that 6% (10/165) of SABRIL patients experienced somnolence compared to 5% (5/104) of placebo patients. In those same studies, 10% (17/165) of SABRIL patients experienced fatigue compared to 7% (7/104) of placebo patients. No SABRIL patients discontinued from clinical trials due to somnolence or fatigue.
SABRIL causes symptoms of peripheral neuropathy in adults. Pediatric clinical trials were not designed to assess symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, but observed incidence of symptoms based on pooled data from controlled pediatric studies appeared similar for pediatric patients on vigabatrin and placebo. In a pool of North American controlled and uncontrolled epilepsy studies, 4.2% (19/457) of SABRIL patients developed signs and/or symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. In the subset of North American placebo-controlled epilepsy trials, 1.4% (4/280) of SABRIL treated patients and no (0/188) placebo patients developed signs and/or symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Initial manifestations of peripheral neuropathy in these trials included, in some combination, symptoms of numbness or tingling in the toes or feet, signs of reduced distal lower limb vibration or position sensation, or progressive loss of reflexes, starting at the ankles. Clinical studies in the development program were not designed to investigate peripheral neuropathy systematically and did not include nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, or skin or nerve biopsy. There is insufficient evidence to determine if development of these signs and symptoms were related to duration of SABRIL treatment, cumulative dose, or if the findings of peripheral neuropathy were completely reversible upon discontinuation of SABRIL.
SABRIL causes weight gain in adult and pediatric patients.
Data pooled from randomized controlled trials in adults found that 17% (77/443) of SABRIL patients versus 8% (22/275) of placebo patients gained ≥ 7% of baseline body weight. In these same trials, the mean weight change among SABRIL patients was 3.5 kg compared to 1.6 kg for placebo patients.
Data pooled from randomized controlled trials in pediatric patients with refractory complex partial seizures found that 47% (77/163) of SABRIL patients versus 19% (19/102) of placebo patients gained ≥ 7% of baseline body weight.
In all epilepsy trials, 0.6% (31/4855) of SABRIL patients discontinued for weight gain. The long term effects of SABRIL related weight gain are not known. Weight gain was not related to the occurrence of edema.
SABRIL causes edema in adults. Pediatric clinical trials were not designed to assess edema, but observed incidence of edema based pooled data from controlled pediatric studies appeared similar for pediatric patients on vigabatrin and placebo.
Pooled data from controlled trials demonstrated increased risk among SABRIL patients compared to placebo patients for peripheral edema (SABRIL 2%, placebo 1%), and edema (SABRIL 1%, placebo 0%). In these studies, one SABRIL and no placebo patients discontinued for an edema related AE. In adults, there was no apparent association between edema and cardiovascular adverse events such as hypertension or congestive heart failure. Edema was not associated with laboratory changes suggestive of deterioration in renal or hepatic function.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide and Instructions for Use).
Patients and caregivers should be informed of the risk of permanent vision loss, particularly loss of peripheral vision, from SABRIL, and the need for monitoring vision [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Monitoring of vision, including assessment of visual fields and visual acuity, is required at baseline (no later than 4 weeks after starting SABRIL) and at least every 3 months while on therapy unless formally exempted as documented by the prescriber. In patients for whom vision testing is not possible, treatment may continue according to clinical judgment with appropriate patient or caregiver counseling and with documentation in the SHARE program of the inability to test vision. Patients or caregivers should be informed that if baseline or subsequent vision is not normal, SABRIL should only be used if the benefits of SABRIL treatment clearly outweigh the risks of additional vision loss.
Patients and caregivers should understand that vision testing may be insensitive and may not detect vision loss before it is severe. Patients should also understand that if vision loss is documented, such loss is irreversible.
Patients and caregivers should be informed that if changes in vision are suspected, they should notify their physician immediately.
SABRIL SHARE Program
SABRIL is available only through a restricted program called SABRIL SHARE Program [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Inform patients of the following requirements:
- Patients must sign a Patient/Parent/Legal Guardian - Physician Agreement Form.
- Patients must read the Medication Guide and understand the risk.
- SABRIL is available through pharmacies that are enrolled in the SHARE Program and provide them with the telephone number and website for information on how to obtain.
- Physicians should confirm that caregiver(s) understand how to mix SABRIL for Oral Solution and to administer the correct dose to their infants.
MRI Abnormalities in Infants
Caregiver(s) should be informed of the possibility that infants may develop an abnormal MRI signal of unknown clinical significance [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Suicidal Thinking and Behavior
Patients, their caregiver(s), and families should be counseled that AEDs, including SABRIL, may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts of self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Use in Pregnancy
Patients should be instructed to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy, and to notify their physician if they are breast feeding or intend to breast feed during therapy [see Use In Specific Populations].
Patients should be encouraged to enroll in the NAAED Pregnancy Registry if they become pregnant. This registry is collecting information about the safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. To enroll, patients can call the toll free number 1-888-233-2334. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/ [see Use in Specific Populations].
Withdrawal of SABRIL Therapy
Patients and caregivers should be told not to suddenly discontinue SABRIL therapy. As with all AEDs, withdrawal should be gradual [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Vigabatrin showed no carcinogenic potential in mouse or rat when given in the diet at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day for 18 months (mouse) or at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day for 2 years (rat). These doses are less than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for infantile spasms (150 mg/kg/day) and for refractory complex partial seizures (3 g/day) on a mg/m²basis.
No adverse effects on male or female fertility were observed in rats at oral doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (approximately ½ the MRHD of 3 g/day (on a mg/m²basis) for adults treated with refractory complex partial seizures.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Vigabatrin produced developmental toxicity, including teratogenic and neurohistopathological effects, when administered to pregnant animals at clinically relevant doses. In addition, developmental neurotoxicity was observed in rats treated with vigabatrin during a period of postnatal development corresponding to the third trimester of human pregnancy. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. SABRIL should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Administration of vigabatrin (oral doses of 50 to 200 mg/kg) to pregnant rabbits throughout the period of organogenesis was associated with an increased incidence of malformations (cleft palate) and embryo-fetal death; these findings were observed in two separate studies. The no-effect dose for teratogenicity and embryolethality in rabbits (100 mg/kg) is approximately ½ the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 3 g/day on a body surface area (mg/m²) basis. In rats, oral administration of vigabatrin (50, 100, or 150 mg/kg) throughout organogenesis resulted in decreased fetal body weights and increased incidences of fetal anatomic variations. The no-effect dose for embryo-fetal toxicity in rats (50 mg/kg) is approximately 1/5 the MRHD on a mg/m²basis. Oral administration of vigabatrin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) to rats from the latter part of pregnancy through weaning produced long-term neurohistopathological (hippocampal vacuolation) and neurobehavioral (convulsions) abnormalities in the offspring. A no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in rats was not established; the low-effect dose (50 mg/kg) is approximately 1/5 the MRHD on a mg/m²basis.
In a published study, vigabatrin (300 or 450 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection to a mutant mouse strain on a single day during organogenesis (day 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12). An increase in malformations (including cleft palate) was observed at both doses.
Oral administration of vigabatrin (5, 15, or 50 mg/kg) to young rats during the neonatal and juvenile periods of development (postnatal days 4-65) produced neurobehavioral (convulsions, neuromotor impairment, learning deficits) and neurohistopathological (brain vacuolation, decreased myelination, and retinal dysplasia) abnormalities in treated animals. The early postnatal period in rats is generally thought to correspond to late pregnancy in humans in terms of brain development. The no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in juvenile rats (5 mg/kg) was associated with plasma vigabatrin exposures (AUC) less than 1/30 of those measured in pediatric patients receiving an oral dose of 50 mg/kg.
To provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to SABRIL, physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking SABRIL enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.
Vigabatrin is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from vigabatrin in nursing infants a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
The safety and effectiveness of SABRIL as adjunctive treatment of refractory complex partial seizures in pediatric patients aged 10 to 16 years of age have been established [see Clinical Studies]. The dosing recommendation in this population varies according to age group and is weight based [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Adverse reactions in this pediatric population are similar to those observed in the adult population [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
The safety and effectiveness of SABRIL have not been established in pediatric patients under 10 years of age with refractory complex partial seizures.
The safety and effectiveness of SABRIL as monotherapy for pediatric patients with infantile spasms (1 month to 2 years of age) have been established [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Clinical Studies].
Duration of therapy for infantile spasms was evaluated in a post hoc analysis of a Canadian Pediatric Epilepsy Network (CPEN) study of developmental outcomes in infantile spasms patients. This analysis suggests that a total duration of 6 months of vigabatrin therapy is adequate for the treatment of infantile spasms. However, prescribers must use their clinical judgment as to the most appropriate duration of use [see Clinical Studies].
Abnormal MRI signal changes were observed in infants [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Oral administration of vigabatrin (5, 15, or 50 mg/kg) to young rats during the neonatal and juvenile periods of development (postnatal days 4-65) produced neurobehavioral (convulsions, neuromotor impairment, learning deficits) and neurohistopathological (brain vacuolation, decreased myelination, and retinal dysplasia) abnormalities in treated animals. The no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in juvenile rats (5 mg/kg) was associated with plasma vigabatrin exposures (AUC) less than 1/30 of those measured in pediatric patients receiving an oral dose of 50 mg/kg.
Clinical studies of vigabatrin did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they responded differently from younger patients.
Vigabatrin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Oral administration of a single dose of 1.5 g of vigabatrin to elderly ( > 65 years) patients with reduced creatinine clearance ( < 50 mL/min) was associated with moderate to severe sedation and confusion in 4 of 5 patients, lasting up to 5 days.
The renal clearance of vigabatrin was 36% lower in healthy elderly subjects ( > 65 years) than in young healthy males. Adjustment of dose or frequency of administration should be considered. Such patients may respond to a lower maintenance dose [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.
Dose adjustment, including initiating treatment with a lower dose, is necessary in pediatric patients 10 years of age and older and adults with mild (creatinine clearance > 50-80 mL/min), moderate (creatinine clearance > 30-50 mL/min) and severe (creatinine clearance > 10-30 mL/min) renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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