"By Kathleen Doheny
WebMD Health News
Reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy, MD, MPH
March 10, 2015 -- Drugs known as biologics have grabbed headlines over the years, both for their potential in fighting cancer and other diseases, and f"...
Sandostatin LAR Depot is a long-acting dosage form consisting of microspheres of the biodegradable glucose star polymer, D,L-lactic and glycolic acids copolymer, containing octreotide. It maintains all of the clinical and pharmacological characteristics of the immediate-release dosage form Sandostatin Injection with the added feature of slow release of octreotide from the site of injection, reducing the need for frequent administration. This slow release occurs as the polymer biodegrades, primarily through hydrolysis. Sandostatin LAR Depot is designed to be injected intramuscularly (intragluteally) once every 4 weeks.
Mechanism Of Action
Octreotide exerts pharmacologic actions similar to the natural hormone, somatostatin. It is an even more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than somatostatin. Like somatostatin, it also suppresses LH response to GnRH, decreases splanchnic blood flow, and inhibits release of serotonin, gastrin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, secretin, motilin, and pancreatic polypeptide.
By virtue of these pharmacological actions, octreotide has been used to treat the symptoms associated with metastatic carcinoid tumors (flushing and diarrhea), and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) secreting adenomas (watery diarrhea).
Single doses of Sandostatin Injection given subcutaneously have been shown to inhibit gallbladder contractility and to decrease bile secretion in normal volunteers. In controlled clinical trials, the incidence of gallstone or biliary sludge formation was markedly increased [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Octreotide may cause clinically significant suppression of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
According to data obtained with the immediate-release formulation, Sandostatin Injection solution, after subcutaneous injection, octreotide is absorbed rapidly and completely from the injection site. Peak concentrations of 5.2 ng/mL (100-mcg dose) were reached 0.4 hours after dosing. Using a specific radioimmunoassay, intravenous and subcutaneous doses were found to be bioequivalent. Peak concentrations and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values were dose proportional both after subcutaneous or intravenous single doses up to 400 mcg and with multiple doses of 200 mcg 3 times daily (600 mcg/day). Clearance was reduced by about 66% suggesting nonlinear kinetics of the drug at daily doses of 600 mcg/day compared to 150 mcg/day. The relative decrease in clearance with doses above 600 mcg/day is not defined.
In healthy volunteers, the distribution of octreotide from plasma was rapid (tα½=0.2 h), the volume of distribution (Vdss) was estimated to be 13.6 L and the total body clearance was 10 L/h.
In blood, the distribution of octreotide into the erythrocytes was found to be negligible and about 65% was bound in the plasma in a concentration-independent manner. Binding was mainly to lipoprotein and, to a lesser extent, to albumin.
The elimination of octreotide from plasma had an apparent half-life of 1.7 hours, compared with the 1-3 minutes with the natural hormone, somatostatin. The duration of action of subcutaneously administered Sandostatin Injection solution is variable but extends up to 12 hours depending upon the type of tumor, necessitating multiple daily dosing with this immediate-release dosage form. About 32% of the dose is excreted unchanged into the urine. In an elderly population, dose adjustments may be necessary due to a significant increase in the half-life (46%) and a significant decrease in the clearance (26%) of the drug.
In patients with acromegaly, the pharmacokinetics differ somewhat from those in healthy volunteers. A mean peak concentration of 2.8 ng/mL (100-mcg dose) was reached in 0.7 hours after subcutaneous dosing. The Vdss was estimated to be 21.6 ± 8.5 L and the total body clearance was increased to 18 L/h. The mean percent of the drug bound was 41.2%. The disposition and elimination half-lives were similar to normals.
The half-life in renal-impaired patients was slightly longer than normal subjects (2.4-3.1 h versus 1.9 h). The clearance in renal-impaired patients was 7.3-8.8 L/h as compared to 8.3 L/h in healthy subjects. In patients with severe renal failure requiring dialysis, clearance was reduced to about half that found in healthy subjects (from approximately 10 L/h to 4.5 L/h).
Patients with liver cirrhosis showed prolonged elimination of drug, with octreotide half-life increasing to 3.7 h and total body clearance decreasing to 5.9 L/h, whereas patients with fatty liver disease showed half-life increasing to 3.4 h and total body clearance of 8.4 L/h. In normal subjects, octreotide half-life is 1.9 h and the clearance is 8.3 L/h which is comparable with the clearance in fatty-liver patients.
Sandostatin LAR Depot
The magnitude and duration of octreotide serum concentrations after an intramuscular injection of the long-acting depot formulation Sandostatin LAR Depot reflect the release of drug from the microsphere polymer matrix. Drug release is governed by the slow biodegration of the microspheres in the muscle, but once present in the systemic circulation, octreotide distributes and is eliminated according to its known pharmacokinetic properties which are as follows.
After a single IM injection of the long-acting depot dosage form Sandostatin LAR Depot in healthy volunteer subjects, the serum octreotide concentration reached a transient initial peak of about 0.03 ng/mL/mg within 1 hour after administration progressively declining over the following 3-5 days to a nadir of < 0.01 ng/mL/mg, then slowly increasing and reaching a plateau about 2-3 weeks postinjection. Plateau concentrations were maintained over a period of nearly 2-3 weeks, showing dose proportional peak concentrations of about 0.07 ng/mL/mg. After about 6 weeks postinjection, octreotide concentration slowly decreased, to < 0.01 ng/mL/mg by Weeks 12 to 13, concomitant with the terminal degradation phase of the polymer matrix of the dosage form. The relative bioavailability of the long-acting release Sandostatin LAR Depot compared to immediate-release Sandostatin Injection solution given subcutaneously was 60%-63%.
In patients with acromegaly, the octreotide concentrations after single doses of 10 mg, 20 mg, and 30 mg Sandostatin LAR Depot were dose proportional. The transient Day 1 peak, amounting to 0.3 ng/mL, 0.8 ng/mL, and 1.3 ng/mL, respectively, was followed by plateau concentrations of 0.5 ng/mL, 1.3 ng/mL, and 2.0 ng/mL, respectively, achieved about 3 weeks postinjection. These plateau concentrations were maintained for nearly 2 weeks.
Following multiple doses of Sandostatin LAR Depot given every 4 weeks, steady-state octreotide serum concentrations were achieved after the third injection. Concentrations were dose proportional and higher by a factor of approximately 1.6 to 2.0 compared to the concentrations after a single dose. The steady-state octreotide concentrations were 1.2 ng/mL and 2.1 ng/mL, respectively, at trough and 1.6 ng/mL and 2.6 ng/mL, respectively, at peak with 20 mg and 30 mg Sandostatin LAR Depot given every 4 weeks. No accumulation of octreotide beyond that expected from the overlapping release profiles occurred over a duration of up to 28 monthly injections of Sandostatin LAR Depot. With the long-acting depot formulation Sandostatin LAR Depot administered IM every 4 weeks the peak-to-trough variation in octreotide concentrations ranged from 44%-68%, compared to the 163%-209% variation encountered with the daily subcutaneous three times daily regimen of Sandostatin Injection solution.
In patients with carcinoid tumors, the mean octreotide concentrations after 6 doses of 10 mg, 20 mg, and 30 mg Sandostatin LAR Depot administered by IM injection every 4 weeks were 1.2 ng/mL, 2.5 ng/mL, and 4.2 ng/mL, respectively. Concentrations were dose proportional and steady-state concentrations were reached after 2 injections of 20 mg and 30 mg and after 3 injections of 10 mg.
Sandostatin LAR Depot has not been studied in patients with renal impairment.
Sandostatin LAR Depot has not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment.
Reproductive Toxicology Studies
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 16x the highest recommended human dose based on body surface area and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to octreotide.
The clinical trials of Sandostatin LAR Depot were performed in patients who had been receiving Sandostatin Injection for a period of weeks to as long as 10 years. The acromegaly studies with Sandostatin LAR Depot described below were performed in patients who achieved GH levels of < 10 ng/mL (and, in most cases < 5 ng/mL) while on subcutaneous Sandostatin Injection. However, some patients enrolled were partial responders to subcutaneous Sandostatin Injection, i.e., GH levels were reduced by > 50% on subcutaneous Sandostatin Injection compared to the untreated state, although not suppressed to < 5 ng/mL.
Sandostatin LAR Depot was evaluated in three clinical trials in acromegalic patients.
In two of the clinical trials, a total of 101 patients were entered who had, in most cases, achieved a GH level < 5 ng/mL on Sandostatin Injection given in doses of 100 mcg or 200 mcg three times daily. Most patients were switched to 20 mg or 30 mg doses of Sandostatin LAR Depot given once every 4 weeks for up to 27 to 28 injections. A few patients received doses of 10 mg and a few required doses of 40 mg. Growth hormone and IGF-1 levels were at least as well controlled with Sandostatin LAR Depot as they had been on Sandostatin Injection and this level of control remained for the entire duration of the trials.
A third trial was a 12-month study that enrolled 151 patients who had a GH level < 10 ng/mL after treatment with Sandostatin Injection (most had levels < 5 ng/mL). The starting dose of Sandostatin LAR Depot was 20 mg every 4 weeks for 3 doses. Thereafter, patients received 10 mg, 20 mg, or 30 mg every 4 weeks, depending upon the degree of GH suppression [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Growth hormone and IGF-1 were at least as well controlled on Sandostatin LAR Depot as they had been on Sandostatin Injection.
Table 5 summarizes the data on hormonal control (GH and IGF-1) for those patients in the first two clinical trials who received all 27 to 28 injections of Sandostatin LAR Depot.
Table 5: Hormonal Response in Acromegalic Patients
Receiving 27 to 28 Injections During1 Treatment with Sandostatin LAR Depot
|Mean Hormone Level||Sandostatin Injection S.C.||Sandostatin LAR Depot|
|GH < 5.0 ng/mL||69/88||78||73/88||83|
|< 2.5 ng/mL||44/88||50||41/88||47|
|< 1.0 ng/mL||6/88||7||10/88||11|
|GH < 5.0 ng/mL + IGF-1 normalized||36/88||41||45/88||51|
|< 2.5 ng/mL + IGF-1 normalized||30/88||34||37/88||42|
|< 1.0 ng/mL + IGF-1 normalized||5/88||6||10/88||11|
|1Average of monthly levels of GH and IGF-1 over the course of the trials.|
For the 88 patients in Table 5, a mean GH level of < 2.5 ng/mL was observed in 47% receiving Sandostatin LAR Depot. Over the course of the trials, 42% of patients maintained mean growth hormone levels of < 2.5 ng/mL and mean normal IGF-1 levels.
Table 6 summarizes the data on hormonal control (GH and IGF-1) for those patients in the third clinical trial who received all 12 injections of Sandostatin LAR Depot.
Table 6: Hormonal Response in Acromegalic Patients
Receiving 12 Injections During1 Treatment with Sandostatin LAR Depot
|Mean Hormone Level||Sandostatin Injection S.C.||Sandostatin LAR Depot|
|GH < 5.0 ng/mL||116/122||95||118/122||97|
|< 2.5 ng/mL||84/122||69||80/122||66|
|< 1.0 ng/mL||25/122||21||28/122||23|
|GH < 5.0 ng/mL + IGF-1 normalized||80/122||66||82/122||67|
|< 2.5 ng/mL + IGF-1 normalized||65/122||53||70/122||57|
|< 1.0 ng/mL + IGF-1 normalized||23/122||19||27/122||22|
|1Average of monthly levels of GH and IGF-1 over the course of the trial|
For the 122 patients in Table 6, who received all 12 injections in the third trial, a mean GH level of < 2.5 ng/mL was observed in 66% receiving Sandostatin LAR Depot. Over the course of the trial, 57% of patients maintained mean growth hormone levels of < 2.5 ng/mL and mean normal IGF-1 levels. In comparing the hormonal response in these trials, note that a higher percentage of patients in the third trial suppressed their mean GH to < 5 ng/mL on subcutaneous Sandostatin Injection, 95%, compared to 78% across the two previous trials.
In all three trials, GH, IGF-1, and clinical symptoms were similarly controlled on Sandostatin LAR Depot as they had been on Sandostatin Injection.
Of the 25 patients who completed the trials and were partial responders to Sandostatin Injection (GH > 5.0 ng/mL but reduced by > 50% relative to untreated levels), 1 patient (4%) responded to Sandostatin LAR Depot with a reduction of GH to < 2.5 ng/mL and 8 patients (32%) responded with a reduction of GH to < 5.0 ng/mL.
Two open-label clinical studies investigated a 48-week treatment with Sandostatin LAR Depot in 143 untreated (de novo) acromegalic patients. The median reduction in tumor volume was 20.6% in Study 1 (49 patients) at 24 weeks and 24.5% in Study 2 (94 patients) at 24 weeks and 36.2% at 48 weeks.
A 6-month clinical trial of malignant carcinoid syndrome was performed in 93 patients who had previously been shown to be responsive to Sandostatin Injection. Sixty-seven (67) patients were randomized at baseline to receive double-blind doses of 10 mg, 20 mg, or 30 mg Sandostatin LAR Depot every 28 days and 26 patients continued, unblinded, on their previous Sandostatin Injection regimen (100-300 mcg three times daily).
In any given month after steady-state levels of octreotide were reached, approximately 35%-40% of the patients who received Sandostatin LAR Depot required supplemental subcutaneous Sandostatin Injection therapy usually for a few days, to control exacerbation of carcinoid symptoms. In any given month, the percentage of patients randomized to subcutaneous Sandostatin Injection who required supplemental treatment with an increased dose of Sandostatin Injection was similar to the percentage of patients randomized to
Sandostatin LAR Depot. Over the 6-month treatment period, approximately 50%-70% of patients who completed the trial on Sandostatin LAR Depot required subcutaneous Sandostatin Injection supplemental therapy to control exacerbation of carcinoid symptoms although steady-state serum Sandostatin LAR Depot levels had been reached.
Table 7 presents the average number of daily stools and flushing episodes in malignant carcinoid patients.
Table 7: Average Number of Daily Stools and Flushing
Episodes in Patients with Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome
|Daily Flushing Episodes
|n||Baseline||Last Visit||Baseline||Last Visit|
|Treatment Sandostatin Injection S.C.||26||3.7||2.6||3.0||0.5|
|Sandostatin LAR Depot|
Overall, mean daily stool frequency was as well controlled on Sandostatin LAR Depot as on Sandostatin Injection (approximately 2-2.5 stools/day).
Mean daily flushing episodes were similar at all doses of Sandostatin LAR Depot and on Sandostatin Injection (approximately 0.5-1 episode/day).
In a subset of patients with variable severity of disease, median 24 hour urinary 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindole acetic acid) levels were reduced by 38%-50% in the groups randomized to Sandostatin LAR Depot.
The reductions are within the range reported in the published literature for patients treated with octreotide (about 10%-50%).
Seventy-eight (78) patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome who had participated in this 6-month trial, subsequently participated in a 12-month extension study in which they received 12 injections of Sandostatin LAR Depot at 4-week intervals. For those who remained in the extension trial, diarrhea and flushing were as well controlled as during the 6-month trial. Because malignant carcinoid disease is progressive, as expected, a number of deaths (8 patients: 10%) occurred due to disease progression or complications from the underlying disease. An additional 22% of patients prematurely discontinued Sandostatin LAR Depot due to disease progression or worsening of carcinoid symptoms.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/3/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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