John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- Shock facts
- What is shock?
- What are the types of shock?
- What are the causes of shock?
- What are the signs and symptoms of shock?
- When should I seek medical care for shock?
- What is the treatment for shock?
- Can shock be prevented?
- What is the outlook for shock?
- Patient Comments: Shock - Cause
- Patient Comments: Shock (Medical) - Type
- Patient Comments: Shock (Medical) - Signs and Symptoms
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- Shock is a life-threatening medical condition and is a medical emergency. If shock is suspected call 911 or get to an emergency department immediately.
- The main symptom of shock is low blood pressure. Other symptoms include rapid, shallow breathing; cold, clammy skin; rapid, weak pulse; dizziness, fainting, or weakness.
- There are several types of shock: septic shock caused by bacteria, anaphylactic shock caused by hypersensitivity or allergic reaction, cardiogenic shock from heart damage, hypovolemic shock from blood or fluid loss, and neurogenic shock from spinal cord trauma.
- Treatment for shock depends on the cause. Tests will determine the
cause and severity. Usually IV fluids are administered in addition to
medications that raise blood pressure.
- Septic shock is treated with antibiotics and fluids.
- Anaphylactic shock is treated with diphenhydramine (Benadryl), epinephrine (an "Epi-pen"), and steroid medications (solu-medrol).
- Cardiogenic shock is treated by identifying and treating the underlying cause.
- Hypovolemic shock is treated with fluids (saline) in minor cases, and blood transfusions in severe cases.
- Neurogenic shock is the most difficult to treat as spinal cord damage is often irreversible. Immobilization, anti-inflammatories such as steroids and surgery are the main treatments.
- Shock prevention includes learning ways to prevent heart disease, injuries, dehydration and other causes of shock.
Next: What is shock?
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