Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
In this Article
- What is sleep?
- What are the stages of sleep?
- How much sleep does a person need?
- Does the amount of sleep we need change as we age?
- What are signs and symptoms of sleep deprivation?
- What are and what causes sleep disorders?
- How are sleep problems diagnosed?
- How are sleep problems treated?
- Sleep hygiene
- Other therapies
- Sleep aids (prescription and OTC)
- Are sleep problems and disease related?
- How can I get a good night's sleep?
- Sleep FAQs
- Find a local Sleep Specialist in your town
How are sleep problems diagnosed?
Doctors use a number of different tests to evaluate sleep and determine whether a sleep disorder is present. A careful medical history and physical examination are performed to help identify any medical conditions that may be interfering with the person's sleep. The health care practitioner will also ask about the use of prescription and non-prescription medications as well as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine use. Laboratory tests may also be used to help diagnose any medical conditions that may cause sleep problems.
In some cases, specialized testing is recommended to help determine whether or not a person may be suffering from a sleep disorder. Some of the most common sleep tests include the following:
- Polysomnography is often simply referred to as a "sleep study." In this
test, doctors use electrodes attached to the face and scalp to measure brain
waves (electroencephalogram or EEG) and muscle tone during a night's sleep.
Other body functions such as airflow, breathing effort, blood oxygen levels, leg
movements, electrocardiogram (ECG), and body position may also be measured if
needed. Sleep studies are most commonly performed in specially designed labs in
hospitals or clinics.
- The multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) is designed to measure daytime
sleepiness. The test is based upon the fact that the sleepier an individual is,
the faster he or she will fall asleep. In this test, the patient is given four
to five opportunities to nap in a quiet, dark room, usually at two hour
intervals during the day. Body functions such as EEG and muscle tone are
measured as in polysomnography. The time period needed from
wakefulness to sleep onset is measured to determine the "sleep latency." This is
repeated during each of the naps, and an average time for sleep latency across
all the naps is calculated. Usually a sleep latency of 5 minutes or less is
signifies severe daytime sleepiness.
- Related to the MSLT is the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT), which
measures the individual's ability to stay awake when reclining in a quiet,
- The Epworth sleepiness scale is a questionnaire that is given to patients, often as part of an office visit to a health care practitioner. The test asks individuals to rate how likely they would be to fall asleep in a number of situations (such as a passenger in a car, sitting quietly after lunch, etc.).
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