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Sleep (cont.)

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Sleep aids (prescription and OTC)

Medications can be of value in treating some types of sleep disorders. However, since sedating medications typically have the potential for addiction and abuse, their use must be carefully supervised by a health care practitioner. Among the types of prescription drugs that have been prescribed for specific sleep disorders include:

  • Benzodiazepines, such as triazolam (Halcion), temazepam (Restoril), and lorazepam (Ativan)
  • Newer, non-benzodiazepine sedative drugs: zaleplon (Sonata), zolpidem (Ambien or Ambien CR, Zolpimist), and eszopiclone (Lunesta).
  • Ramelteon (Rozerem), an insomnia drug that acts by mimicking the action of melatonin (see below)
  • Antidepressant medications have been used to treat insomnia in people who may also suffer from depression. Examples are trazodone (Desyrel), amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), and doxepin (Sinequan, Adapin).
  • A number of prescription drugs have been used to treat restless legs syndrome, including carbidopa-levodopa, opioids (such as propoxyphene [Darvon, Darvon-N, Dolene]) or tramadol (Ultram) for intermittent symptoms, carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR , Equetro, Carbatrol),clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium, Diastat), triazolam (Halcion), temazepam (Restoril), baclofen, bromocriptine, clonidine (Catapres, Catapres-TTS, Jenloga), gabapentin (Neurontin), ropinirole (Requip) and pramipexole (Mirapex).
  • In sleep apnea and other sleep disorders in which airway obstruction is a problem, topical nasal decongestants may provide some relief. However, many clinicians warn people with sleep apnea never to use sleeping pills or medications that are sedative as the person could be prevented from waking enough to stimulate breathing, which could lead to brain damage or sudden death.

OTC sleep medications are sometimes used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. These include the sedating antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl). However, this is not a recommended use of these or other similar drugs due to their many side effects and the possibility of long-term drowsiness the following day.

Melatonin, a chemical released from the brain which induces sleep, has been tried in supplement form and promoted as a natural sleep remedy for treatment of insomnia. But studies have shown that it has been generally ineffective in treating common types of insomnia, except in specific situations in patients with known low levels of melatonin.

CPAP devices (continuous positive airway pressure; a device worn over the face that holds the airway open by maintaining constant air pressure) and Dental appliances have been effective in the management of sleep-related breathing disorders, including sleep apnea. CPAP is typically the first line of therapy for most adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 1/6/2014

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Source: MedicineNet.com
http://www.medicinenet.com/sleep/article.htm

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